КГУ "Карагандинская областная юношеская библиотека имени Жайыка Бектурова"

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Formation of the cities and settlements in the territory of the Karaganda region originates from the first settled the settlement, regions of the Central Kazakhstan arising in the favorable for maintaining agricultural economy (nowadays the territory of Osakarovka, Bukharzhyrau, Nurinsky areas). At the same time fairs, including one of the largest in Kazakhstan — Koyandinsko-Botovsky fair acted on ancient trade ways. Due to the Russian colonization of the Kazakh steppe its minerals accustomed to the imperial purposes. Round the arising small mines and plants working settlements were under construction. In 1824 was founded Karkaralinsk, single city before construction of Karaganda, in the territory of area.

The main part of settlements arose after October revolution. The modern Karaganda is founded in situ the miner's settlement formed in the center of the Karaganda coal basin. Origin of the coal industry in the region demanded the fastest development and electrification. Construction of the first-born of a power engineering of area began in the valley of river of Nura, in 35 km to S.-Z. from Karaganda, near the settlement of Samarkand (nowadays Temirtau) which became a core of the Karaganda and Temirtau city agglomeration presented nowadays Karaganda, Temirtau, Saran, Abay, Shakhtinsk, working settlements, and, at the same time, the organizing center of the Karaganda and Temirtau industrial region which formation began in the 30th years. The largest and well-planned settlements of area also treat: city of regional subordination Karkaralinsk; item of Molodezhny and Topar, arisen during construction of the canal Irtysh-Karaganda and the Karaganda GRES-2, Karagaily which formation is bound to operation of Karagaylinsky ore fields, and also the item of Osakarovka, Botakara (Resident of Ulyanovsk), item Agadyr, village of Egindybulak, Aktogay. In 1934-38 the master plan of GPI "Mosobl project" (architects A. Kuznetsov, A. Karnaukhov) was developed by which construction of the New city on 300 thousand inhabitants was planned. However its realization in days of the first five-years periods was bound to economic difficulties. By the end of the Great Patriotic War arose more than 30 near coalpit of settlements here. The housing stock of Karaganda consisted during this period for 90% from uncomfortable wooden, the adobe and pise-walled structures. The housing neighbourhood with waste heaps testified to need of the fastest solution of town-planning tasks and a radical reorganization of the developed system of moving about 200 thousand inhabitants.

In the 50th years in Karaganda the northern part of the New city with the reference system of the modern public centers, developed structure of thoroughfares and streets was created, there were objects of social and cultural and community appointment. However growth rates of the city lagged behind fast increase in population because of poorly developed structural industry. For the solution of housing problem on without coal territories New Tikhonovna, Maykuduk, Fedorovka, etc. were under construction the settlement. During the 60-80th years construction engineering construction in Karaganda received an industrial basis. In 1959 the house-building combine became operational. The new city began to be built up quickly, in its territory there were large inhabited massifs with multi-storey well-planned buildings. In 1968 the new master plan of development of Karaganda on 650–700 thousand inhabitants was approved (central research institute of town planning, Moscow, architects V. Shkvarikov, A. Khokhlov). By this time the problem of territorial development of Karaganda which philosophy is placement of mass construction on the without coal territories to Yu.-V., along the railroad was solved.

The main idea of a new master plan - creation of the uniform city uniting historically developed and now well-planned areas: Maykuduk, New city, Prishakhtinsk. At the heart of architectural planning structure of the city - the residential areas with population to 20–25 thousand people which are built up with 9-12-storeyed houses.

In 1994 updating of the general plan is made and PDP (project of detailed planning) of the Southeast planning area is developed, however this document was not approved. In 2004 development of the first stage of the gen. of city map — the long-term forecast of a development of the city (concept) for the purpose of definition of the directions of an economic and economic and territorial and functional development of the city, proceeding from the complex analysis of town-planning conditions, resource potential and its stage-by-stage realization is executed. The concept of architectural and planning solutions of building of territories of Karaganda provides body height of population of the city by 2030 to 1,2 million people under the favorable conditions of development, with the intermediate increase in number to 630 thousand human. Now the square of the city of Karaganda in aged borders makes about 58 thousand hectares.

The southeast district of the city where intensive construction engineering construction is conducted, became a place of formation of the new modern center of Karaganda. The center of Karaganda there is a New city with the larger recreation park located on both sides river. Big Bukpy, trunk mains — Bukhar-Zhyrau's prospectuses, Abdirov, Boulevard of Mira, Lenin Street. The buildings built here in various time are subordinated to a plan uniform architectural compositionly. In situ crossings of Bukhar-Zhyrau Avenue with Alikhanov Street the main administrative square is placed. The buildings of the House of the Unions (1965) and Tsentrkazgeologiya built on a main square form peculiar monumental gate — an entrance to park of a name of the 30 anniversary of All-Union Leninist Young Communist League. The administrative center is adjoined by the trade and household center. This architectural and composition knot the Kazakhstan hotel (1974), Orbita restaurant (1970), Central Department Store (1973, 2005) form, Public service center (1981), Abzal trading house. On crossing of prospectuses Bukhar Zhyrau and N. Abdirov is located a sports and spectacular complex, buildings of circus (1982), the covered sports skating rink (1971), Sports palace (1958), a track and field athletics arena (1975), shopping center "City Mall" are built. On Bukhar-Zhyrau Avenue and a boulevard half ring some other architectural and composition clusters is created: buildings of regional administration (1977) and city (1938), the station (1956), Palace of culture of miners (1950), drama theater of S. Seyfullin (1962).

It is expressive on the architectural and planning structure and Temirtau which development is bound to construction of plant of synthetic rubber (nowadays ON "Carbide") and the Karaganda iron and steel works. Emergence of Temirtau is bound to the period of development of the Karaganda coal basin. In 1935 about existing on the river Nura the settlement of Samarkand construction of the water-engineering system for creation of a reservoir, a thermal power plant of KARGRES and a branch line of Solonichki-Temirtau was begun. Construction of the inhabited settlement of state district power station which became together with the settlement of Samarkand a basis of the modern area the Aged city is begun. On October 1, 1945 Temirtau received the status of the city.

The operating master plan of Temirtau was developed by CRIP "Town planning" of Moscow in 1991 and approved as Temirtau Maslikhat No. 6/4 decision of April 16, 2004. The draft of the general plan defines the main directions of territorial development, planning, building of the city for calculated term till 2030, and also defines reserve territories for a development of the city.

The Residential zone shares on some areas which have rather self-contained values as in the functional, and the planning relation. However in general the structure of the city of Temirtau is formed as a uniform organism with the uniform city center on the bank of a reservoir. Legible functional zoning of the territory with creation of a developed zone of the city center for the coast of a reservoir, the residential zone developing from the central part in the southwest direction is the basis for the architectural and planning solution of a master plan.

The project of detailed planning of the southwest residential area of Temirtau is executed by Karagandagrazhdanproject Institute in 1992. The designed area shares on two main zones — residential and park. Development of the residential area in the southwest direction where formation of multystoried and low buildings with the trade and public center and regional park is supposed, provides preservation of the existing functional zones and planning structure without radical processing. Feature of a relief of the designed area is the pronounced hill which is looked through from all specific points. And trace of streets is subordinated to a dominant position of the hill. Round the hill the ring highway which compositionally coordinates all functional zones with trade and public, cultural and community, fitness center and park is carried out. Core of planning composition is the semicircular area from which pedestrian streets ray.

One of the industrial and cultural centers of area is Zhezkazgan. The city arose in situ the former settlement of Kengir founded in 1938 on the bank of the small steppe small river of the same name. Along with the settlement construction of the Kengir reservoir which surrounds the city with a half ring with S.-V. now was begun and is the main source of water supply. In April, 1943 the combine, Karsakpay copper plant, the Baikonur coal mine as a part of mines, the stannaries of pits were founded Zhezkazgan copper stannaries. On August 3, 1944 the construction site of Kazmedstroy trust was formed. In November, 1954 Zhezkazgan was given the status of the city, and the city industry started developing intensively. Power of combined heat and power plant increased, construction of meat-processing plant, city lactic plant, the dressing-works No. 2 began. In 1967-73 construction of copper-smelting plant was made. Together with development of the industry population of the city increased. On the basis of Zhezkazgan and Mr. Satpayev (Nikolsk) located apart 18 km there was a tendency to formation of big agglomeration. In 1967. The Kazakh town-planning design institute executed the site planning of Zhezkazgan and the settlement of Nikolsk. The master plan of Zhezkazgan is developed by Kazgiprograd Institute in 1978 and the Soviet Socialist Republic in 1980 is approved by the resolution of Council of ministers Kazakh. Calculated population of the city according to a master plan — 120 thousand human. Perspective zones of development and the functional elements of the city, questions of public service, engineering support, improvement and transport were determined by the general plan. In 1987. The Karaganda institute "Karagandagorselprojekt" developed the project of detailed planning of the Northwest residential area of the city. Now the territory of this area is single for construction of IZhS and multystoried housing.

The city of Zhezkazgan began from eight separate settlements (Station, the Emergency, Kombinat, Fishing, the II expedition, the historical city, new inhabited massifs — Coastal and Western) and as a result of historical territorial and planning development and assimilation of residential suburbs turned into complete structure. Formation of this territorial and planning structural structure was carried out during 1954-95. In planning of the city the interrelation of the public centers, a housing estate, street road network, the planted trees and shrubs territories for rest, and also workplaces and a surrounding medium were considered. In that part of the city where aged buildings remained, houses with facades on the street on system of a rectangular grid settled down. And in residential quarters with an area of 0,6-1,0 hectares settle down low (2–4 floors) and one-storey houses with personal plots. The basic building blocks of a housing estate of the last years are the cities located in northern and western part residential districts and groups of residential quarters. The residential districts built in the 60-70th years of the last century generally consist of large-panel and brick 5-storeyed houses. The Zhezkazgan house-building combine in the 80th years passed to manufacture of products for 5-and 9-storeyed houses on the improved project. In the subsequent in new northeast residential districts 1-2-storeyed houses with personal plots were under construction. In city town planning separate street sites and some design complexes according to spatial compositionly decision differ in architectural expressiveness (S. Seyfullin Boulevard, K. Satpayev St., Metallurgov Square, an administrative center, etc.) . The main transport system of the city passes on Nekrasov's streets, the World, K. Satpayev. Communication of districts of the city with the Southern industrial region and settlement of Kengir is carried out through prospectuses of city value — Abay, S. Seyfullin and Lenin. The city center well provides and is adapted for development of different level of the functional communications with administrative and public, business, cultural and educational, spectacular and entertaining, trade and sports the centers.

Bound to the public centers, and also vacant territories the water area of a reservoir Kengir and city parks are the main expressive natural landscapes of the city. On crossing of streets of K. Satpayev, Youth, the World and Abay in the 50th years Metallurgov Square on which the administrative housing of Kazakhmys corporation and musical and drama theater (Recreation center of metallurgists) are located today is built. After a laying of Lenin Avenue in the 80th years were constructed the main administrative square (the arkh. M. O. Zhandauletov, S. G. Lobsters), 10-storeyed administrative housing (arkh. A. V. Tkachyov, O. S. Bogdanov), housing of the Center of friendship of the people and culture (House of national education, 1977). Public houses and administrative and business, cultural and entertaining, trade and memorial complexes which are included into structure of the public centers located in S. Seyfullin Boulevard and Lenin Avenue were built. Among them the main are the Zhezkazgan hotel (1970), large-format movie theater "Saryzhaylau" (1977), the house of consumer services "Saltanat" (1982), a monument "First builders of the city of Zhazkazgan", an obelisk "Space" (1976), a monument "Subjugators of space" (1977), a monument to S. Seyfullin (1994, скульп. M. O Aynekov). In recent years in the region of Zhezkazgan production communications with foreign firms develop. According to the joint project objects of introduction of new technologies are created: plant of a copper rod iron (the USA, Finland, Japan, Turkey), the overworking complex (Holland), the center of business (Sweden), the medical center (South Korea).

Mr. Satpayev (Nikolsk) located in 18 km from Zhezkazgan united to the big city. Here the first houses and office buildings were constructed in the territory of the settlement. Ore, the ore field formed for development which was opened by British. Buildings of the city began in 1961 on S.-V. from the settlement. Prefabricated two-storeyed houses were the first structural objects. In 1961 in connection with the introduction in a system of house-building combine, 5-storeyed large-panel houses were entered 4-. Today this city is formed by harmoniously constructed industrial facilities and houses. The master plan of Nikolsk (Satpayev) developed Kazgiprograd Institute in 1977. In the subsequent, in connection with increase in the city also the number of inhabitants increased, having exceeded the calculated indicators provided by the general plan. In this regard in 1990 "Kazgiprograd" developed the general plan till 2010 having made to it changes (architects S. D. Shaymerdenov, R. A. Ibragimov, Zh. K. Nurmagambetov). In a new way the architectural appearance of the city was defined. The majority of multystoried houses are located in the central and northwest parts of the city. Residential districts consist in the majority of 5-storeyed houses, the share of the 9-storeyed is insignificant. The planning structure of the city consists of low quarters and multystoried residential districts. The structure of planning of transport communication in practice is carried out on a rectangular grid of streets which in quarters of one-storey houses becomes more small. The main composition arteries of the city are Pobedy Street, Satpayev, Abay along which the public centers are located. One of trunk mains of the city — Satpayev St. crosses the city from the North to the south and connects it to the industrial zone. In the organization of the central space of the city of Pobeda St. plays the main role and is the main core of the city. The ensemble of the square in front of city administration covers buildings of Baikonur movie theater and comes to an end with a beautiful view of Komarov Boulevard. From public the building it is possible to allocate 850-seater Recreation center and Sports palace of 1063 sq.m. In development of town planning and architecture of the Zhezkazgansky region the big contribution was made by staff of Design institutes "Kazgiprograd", "Karagandagorselproject", "Zhezkazgantsvetmet", "Zhezkazgangorselproyekt" and, in particular, architects G. Omarov, K. O. Turlybayev.

The city of Balkhash is located on the bank of the gulf Bertys in northern part of the lake Balkhash. In the administrative relation Balkhash is carried to the cities of regional subordination. Together with the closest settlements of the settlement of Kounradsky, East Kounradsky, Sayak and Gulshad the city forms the Balkhash industrial hub. Through Balkhash there passes the highway of Almaty-Karaganda, and also a branch line Mointy-Sayak of a railway line Karaganda Chu. The airport is in northern part of the city.

The total area of lands within city line of 591,6 thousand hectares. The first master plan of Balkhash was developed by "Gorstroyproject" in 1935 with calculated population of 49 thousand persons. In 1936 the first stone houses which laid the foundation to the composition solution of the modern city were built. The operating master plan of Balkhash was developed in 1962. The Leningrad office of GPI "Gorstroyproject" also approved by the resolution of Council of ministers Kazakh the Soviet Socialist Republic in 1963. Updating of the general plan is executed by GGPI "Kazgiprograd" in 1987. In parallel with development of a master plan by institute the project of detailed planning of the central part of the city is developed. Updating of the general plan captured the period of 20-year prospect, calculated term — 2005. Questions of the functional zoning of territorial development and prospect found reflection in updating of the master plan production and the residential of territories, the organizations of short-term rest of the population, protection and reproduction of the environment surrounding the person which caused some changes on the functional zoning of the territory of the city. Scales of a development of the city are dictated with the keeping within production potential presented by the operating, under construction and planned to construction production enterprises and other production objects.

The city of Balkhash is one of the large industrial centers of area. Now population makes 74,1 thousand human. Construction in the thirties of copper-smelting plant formed economic base of a development of the city. Now Balkhash mining and metallurgical combine — one of the largest industrial centers of nonferrous metallurgy of the country and city-forming base of the city. The city occupies all peninsula located between two gulfs of the lake, only the southern part of the peninsula was outlined under a recreation area. Development of the residental territory of the city is provided in the southeast direction. The city of Balkhash represents compact planning structure with rectangular system of streets of generally quarter cutting.

The production territories are in the western and east parts of the city divided by the inhabited territory. All residential territory of the city shares on 4 residential areas. All districts of the city together with a recreation area on the peninsula represent the finished planning structure which is formed parallel to the lake. The main highway of Lenin Ave. which bears functions of the dynamic downtown unites these areas and at the same time provides good communication with the industrial areas. The majority of social and cultural facilities is placed along this highway and streets adjoining to it.

On the basis of the miner's settlements of Saran, Sherubaynura, Tentek in area arose satellite towns Saran, Abay, Shakhtinsk, the social organization and which structure became base for self-contained development. In Saran the plant of industrial rubber goods, and in Shakhtinsk — plant of synthetic scours is constructed.

Potent city-forming factor in the Karaganda region is development of such large industrial complexes as the Karaganda iron and steel works, ON "Carbide", "Karagandarezinotekhnika", the Karaganda state district power stations, Karagay mining and processing works, etc. Placement in the territory of area of productive forces and productive capacities is regulated by the project of regional planning and master plans of the cities. Being base of formation of systems of moving in area, the production complexes play at the same time large role in formation of appearance of the cities. Projection of the production construction is conducted by various state design organizations together with local institutes "Karagandapromstroyproject", "Karagandagrazhdanproject", etc. Local bodies, coordinating projects of the production and construction engineering construction, achieve the greatest expressiveness of architectural forms. The special place in formation of image of the cities of area, in the solution of problems of improving character occupies green construction. Despite a favor in a zone of semi-deserts, settlements of area differ in high extent of gardening. In days of the Great Patriotic War on the Samarkand reservoir the irrigational system intended for an irrigation of several thousand hectares of lands was constructed. Creation of dams on the rivers and thalwegs provided with irrigation water the production enterprises and suburban settlements. In the early fifties in the center of Karaganda, in the settlement Saran, Sherubaynura, etc. park zones, windy and snow protection strips were broken. In the cities there was a uniform system of public gardening.


The big contribution to successful development of town planning and city architecture and settlements of area was brought by staff of institutes "Karagandagiproshakht", "Karagandapromstroyproject", "Karagandagorselproject", "Karagandaorgtyazhstroy". T. Ya. Barag and A. M. Genin (the 40th years), I. I. Brenner, I. S. Ivanova, S. P. Kudryavtseva, E. G. Melikov, S. I. Mordvintsev, R. A. Seydalin, V. N. Uklein, E. I. Hidirov are considered as founders of the Karaganda school of architects (50-60th). In Karaganda St. 40 terms of the Union of architects of the USSR worked. For planning and building of the Central part of the city of Karaganda the group of architects and builders is awarded in 1978 the State award Kazakh with the Soviet Socialist Republic of Ch. Ch. Valikhanov (N. I. Blishchenko, M. O. Zhandauletov, A. D. Zhigailo, E. G. Melikov, S. I. Mordvintsev, A. I. Pyatrin).