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Youthful politic

Youthful politic

Now the youth in Kazakhstan makes 29% of the population, the share of rural youth thus makes 48% from the total number of youth.

The public youth policy is formed and realized by public authorities within the state, industry and regional programs with the assistance of youth public organizations.

Within realization branch and region programs of youth policy conditions for active involvement of young citizens in social and economic and political life of the country are created, new forms of work with youth are introduced essentially.

In each region Staffs of youth and student's labor groups which annually provide seasonal employment more than 30 thousand studying youth, including at the organization of gardening and improvement of territories according to the «Zhasyl el» program work.

Twice the number of the youth organizations increased and made more than 720 in 2008. The share of the youth which is taking part in their activity, makes 22% from total number.

More than 70% of student's youth actively take part in political processes. The organized youth is consolidated under the auspices of uniform public organizations and the movements defending interests of youth.

Republican and regional events for youth are annually held: Youth congresses, All-republican forums, collecting an army asset, meetings of leaders of student's youth, mass patriotic actions, conferences, competitions, games, round tables, etc.

The organized part of youth, among them pupils, students, activists and target groups of youth nongovernmental organizations was generally involved in implementation of these programs.

The objective information and analytical base, allowing to carry out social and economic stratification of youth is necessary for timely identification and an assessment of influence of modern calls, tendencies, preconditions of development of a situation in the youth environment.

A number of thematic sociological and expert inspections and supervision was carried out. Thus government bodies did not provide their system integration in this connection complex supervision of dynamics of social and demographic and economic indicators of activity of separate socially protected categories of youth, including the young people being below the poverty line, in difficult life situations, in places of imprisonment and others a level was not carried out.

Within realization of the State program of patriotic education of citizens for 2006-2008 at republican and regional levels the system of patriotic education is created. During implementation of the program more than 800 patriotic events are held.

The existing system of patriotic and civil education demands the further development and modernization. In establishments of additional education, the youth organizations, patriotic and domestic clubs there is a deficiency of the experts capable effectively to organize patriotic education of children and youth, not enough information and methodical grants concerning formation of a civil liability and patriotism, military patriotic education.

The analysis of the processes happening in the youth environment, showed that along with noticeable changes in a level of development of modern youth it is necessary to state the general decrease in cultural requirements, educational level, crisis of ideals and loss of spiritual reference points is observed. Insufficiently effective organization of educational work in education systems, defenses, internal affairs, tourism and sports promotes change of valuable orientations of younger generation, development of the isolated behavioral forms in society.

Owing to what according to sociological polls, insufficient development in comparison with the international trends of legal and behavioral culture of youth, functional literacy and possibility of use of acquired skills and abilities is noted.

Special relevance in the light of counteraction to external calls is gained by the effective organization of educational work among the young military personnel, employees of power structures, the students who are training abroad.

Social, housing, language and interethnic policy, reforms in education systems, health care, employments of youth are realized within the appropriate state, industry and regional programs, and also strategic plans of government bodies.

Education for youth

Education for youth is fundamental competitive advantage.

Today educational programs captured 83% of youth aged from 14 till 21 year. According to the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "About education" the youth has the right to free primary, main secondary and general secondary education, and also on a competitive basis, according to the state educational order, free technical and professional, postsecondary, higher and postgraduate education.

In Kazakhstan population coverage by the general secondary education at the age of 7-17 years made 96%. In system of the higher education continue training of 56% of young people, in system of technical and professional education - 12,5%.

In 2008 by the state educational order in system of technical and professional education 32,4% from total being trained, in postsecondary education — 17,5% of pupils, in the higher education – 18,7% are trained.

According to express poll satisfaction with quality of educational services with pupils and students makes 51% and 65% of parents of trainees. Employment of graduates of the organizations of the higher education makes less than 60%, technical and professional less than 70%.

Vocational training is inaccessible to rural youth. In 27 areas of the republic there are no professional lyceums.

When carrying out competitions on obtaining educational grants 1% a reception quota for youth with limited opportunities in development, 0,5% for orphan children and children without parental support, and also 30% a quota for rural youth on the specialties defining social and economic development of the village is provided.

For relief action to the students who are training on a paid basis, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan gave instructions to the country Government on enlarged meeting of Bureau of Political council of People's democratic party «Nur Otan» on February 12, 2009 about allocation of 11 thousand additional educational grants and 40 thousand long-term soft loans for students.

In 2008-2009 academic year the contingent of students of the republic makes 633 814 people from whom 330 970 are trained in an internal form, including 206 718 – on a paid basis. Among them 16 166 people are excellent students, including about 12 thousand are trained on the 3rd and are more senior courses.

Being trained according to programs of the highest, postgraduate and vocational training by the state social support is provided.

The monthly state grant is paid to graduates of orphanages, and also owners of educational grants. The grant size in 2009 makes to students of 9 375 tenges, undergraduates – 23 958 tenges, to doctoral candidates – 36 699 tenges, the pupil of colleges – 7 500 tenges, professional lyceums – 3 250 tenges.

Compensation payment on long-distance journey to the vacation period is provided at the expense of means of the republican budget to all being trained by the state order. Preferential Drive on public transport (except a taxi) for being trained full-time tuition according to the decision of local executive bodies is carried out only in Almaty, Almaty, Aktyubinsk, Karaganda, Zhambyl, Atyrau areas.

Hostels provided only 36% of the youth from another town which is training in state universities, 8% - in private higher education institutions and 2,5% - in system of technical and vocational and postaverage training.

According to expected calculations for full providing nonresident students with housing the need for additional construction of hostels makes today 500 thousand m 2.

Ensuring health protection of youth, formation of its healthy lifestyle is one of strategically important directions of public policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Health protection of youth is carried out within the existing regulations regulating activity of a health care system.

According to the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "About health protection of citizens" public policy in the field of health protection of citizens is pursued on the basis of the principles of availability and quality of rendering medical care and a joint liability of the state, employers and citizens for preservation and strengthening of individual and public health.

Responsibility for the organization of carrying out obligatory and periodic medical examinations of studying youth is born by establishments of the education, working — employers. Owing to insufficient efficiency of the measures undertaken by employers on the organizations of routine inspections, and low culture of health of citizens only certain categories of hired workers, including till 29 years, pass systematic surveys.

In an education system of 98% of pupils it is captured by obligatory medical examinations. Security with medical offices in system of secondary education makes 77%, in technical and professional - 94%, in the highest - 75%. Security with doctors in the organizations of secondary education makes 65,5%, nurses – 87,7%, school psychologists – 67%; completeness the medical equipment – 62%.

The youth in Kazakhstan has the right to free medical attendance, within the established guaranteed volume free of medical care. According to express polls satisfaction of youth with quality of services of the public medical institutions makes 40,8%.

The main problems in the sphere of preservation of health of teenagers and youth are the high percent of traumatism, the irrational food, insufficient physical activity, the use of psychoactive agents, preservation reproductive, and also mental health. Monitoring of the main indicators of health in age structure of teenagers and youth from 14 to 29 years is not conducted.

Access to private sports institutions for youth becomes complicated the high cost of services.

Especially sharply there is a problem of development of sports in the village. In the rural zone of six areas of the country there are no swimming pools, in 13 areas of the republic there are no child junior sports schools in this connection the quantity going in for sports in the village is twice lower than an all-republican indicator.

The use by youth of psychoactive agents also represents a serious problem which indirectly or directly affects every fifth inhabitant of the country. Smoking distribution, the use of alcoholic beverages and drugs reached critical level and further increase of these tendencies can cause irreversible consequences.

Tobacco consumption (22,8%) and alcohol (18,1%) teenagers and young people continues to remain at rather high level, thus indicators of prevalence of smoking especially increase among girls.

The exact accounting of a narcotization of youth is kept in clinics at a stage when for the help ask mainly sick with drug addiction. In this case those who addressed in public institution fall under the account only. According to the Prosecutor General's Office of the Republic of Kazakhstan as of October 1, 2008 on the account 4 790 women consisted 54 751 persons abusing drugs, psychotropic and toxic substances, including. Considering the international experience, the organization of the early help and prevention of a drug addiction is most actual among young people till 19 years.

Constantly incidence and mortality indicators in connection with problems of mental health grow. By available estimates, to 20% of teenagers suffer mental or behavioral problems. The quantity of cases of a suicide among youth does not decrease. According to WHO data the critical threshold is considered the number of suicides making over 20 on 100 thousand the population. After countries of Eastern Europe and Russia, Kazakhstan is included into group of the countries with high manifestations of suicide behavior. For the last decade the number of suicides makes 27-29 on 100 thousand population.

Teenagers and youth are target group of actions on promotion and formation of the healthy lifestyle, carried out within implementation of the Healthy lifestyle program. The National Center of problems of formation of a healthy lifestyle which forms regional service PHL works. Today function 14 regional, 9 city, 10 regional Centers of formation of a healthy lifestyle and 252 Centers of strengthening of health. The integrated educational program "Health and life skills" is developed and is approved, services, friendly to youth take root.

Today the youth centers of health function in the cities of Almaty, Astana, Ust -Kamenogorsk, Semipalatinsk, Taraz and Shymkent. Services, friendly to youth, are complex and include, besides medical care, the whole block of a public, psychological, legal aid on the principles of availability, goodwill, trust and voluntariness.

Informing of youth on influence of a conduct of life on health, harm of consumption of mentally active agents, alcoholic and nicotinic dependence is insufficiently carried out.

The analysis of the main indicators of a labor market in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2005 - 2007 testifies to increase in number of busy youth at 2,8% and decrease in level of youth unemployment. The level of unemployment of citizens aged from 16 till 24 years in 2008 makes 9,3% that is 2,4% higher than a level of unemployment among adult population.

In structure of employment of city youth wage labor - 52,3% prevails. Level of youth unemployment is higher in the cities - in 2007 it made 12,5%, at rural population - 7,2%.

The state according to the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "About population employment" provides measures for employment assistance to target national groups, including youth aged till 21 year, to pupils of orphanages, orphan children and children without parental support, aged till 23 years.

According to the strategic plan of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of the population youth and women are allocated in separate categories. Separate measures for assistance of effective employment of youth, vocational training of the unemployed according to requirements of a labor market, the organization of public works and to youth employment on temporary workplaces in a framework of "Youth practice" are realized, fairs of vacancies are carried out.

5,9 thousand young citizens took part in public works aged till 21 year, including 33 pupils of orphanages, orphan children and children without parental support, aged till 23 years and 199 pupils, students.

With assistance of bodies of employment finished vocational training and retraining of 4,0 thousand young citizens aged from 16 till 24 years (including 2,0 thousand - inhabitants of the rural zone), from them 1,0 thousand – graduates of the organizations of education. From total number of the youth which has finished training, 3,3 thousand people are employed, opened own business – 113.

For the solution of problems of employment of graduates bodies of employment realize the Youth Practice project: in six months 2008 918 graduates of the organizations of education took part in it, including from them 376 people (41%) are employed for permanent job. Results of expert polls testify that this project is demanded by youth, but is limited for a big share of youth on age and an experience.

In the first half of the year 2008 on social workplaces 781 persons from among youth are employed. However created social workplaces are a little demanded among youth as their average level of a salary makes 8 700 tenges.

From addressed in bodies of employment of 38,9% the youth living in the rural zone makes, 11,9% of graduates of the organizations of education. Of total of the employed young people who have addressed a share till 23 years made 80,5%, including, living in the rural zone – 78,6%, graduates of the organizations of education - 39,5%.

The share addressed in employment bodies, from total of jobless youth aged till 24 years, makes 78,6%.

These indicators testify to low efficiency of the measures directed on employment of youth, having basic profession. Today the requirement of a labor market on 3/4 is presented by working professions. By available results of researches special deficiency of skilled workers is presented in construction – 9,9 thousand people, in agricultural industry – 9,6 thousand people, to technologies of cars and the equipment – 7,6 thousand people, in a services sector – 6,8 thousand people. The uniform information base about a condition of supply and demand on a labor market is absent.

The considerable part of unoccupied youth of the republic is made by young people at the age of 16-19 years which graduated from school, but are not trained in educational institutions and have no sufficient practical experience.

In structure of jobless young citizens female unemployment prevails. Security with kindergartens makes today 35,6% that interferes with employment of both spouses in a young family.

With the participation of civil sector a number of the projects directed on increase of level of employment of youth and adaptation of youth in a labor market is annually realized. Among them - the «Zhasyl el» program, initiatives of development of student's construction and labor groups, the projects "Personnel Reserve", "With the Diploma to the Village", "Youth Employment Agency".

The youth not fully owns information on the measures undertaken by the state, on the solution of questions of employment and employment within regional programs and socially significant projects. Insufficient promotion of working specialties and weak informing of youth on demanded specialties on a labor market is noted.

In structure of employment of youth there were changes in the ratio the number of hired workers and independently busy to a prevalence of hired employment in the non-state organizations. Among categories of self-busy youth the share of employers grows. The share of youth occupied with wage labor, increased by 3,7% and made 52,3%. For 13,7% the number of hired young employees of the non-state organizations increased. In structure of employment of rural youth prevalence of a share of the self-busy proceeds.

Important component of development of youth is identification and realization of innovative potential. The share young, engaged in scientific and research activity, in total of researchers makes 21,4%. Only 20% of young people constantly improve the professional skills and intend to continue training throughout all life.

The solution of housing problems of youth is carried out within realization of state programs of housing construction in the Republic of Kazakhstan according to the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "About the housing relations", other regulations. In the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan the housing rights of youth separately are not allocated.

From the state housing stock only that part of youth which belongs to socially protected segments of the population, for example, orphan children who have not reached twenty years, lost parents to majority, and corresponding to criteria "needing housing" according to item 69 of the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "About the housing relations" has access to housing. According to item 9 of article 118 of the specified Law prime and extraordinary granting the dwelling from the state housing stock is carried out to families of the newlyweds who entered first marriage till 30 years and have given birth to the child in the first three years after marriage.

According to the State program of housing construction in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2008 - 2010 in the priority categories of the population applying for housing, the young families having children enter.

According to the Law "About the Public Youth Policy" a young family is the family in which both spouses did not reach age of twenty nine years, or an incomplete family in which children (child) are brought up by one of the parents, not reached age of twenty nine years, including divorced. For training in higher educational institutions and the organizations of secondary professional education premises of room type in hostels of the organizations of education are provided to young families.

From 2005 to 2007 the share of the young families which have received housing within the program, made 13% (3 379 apartments). Thus the share of the young families which have not confirmed the solvency, made 46% from total of potential recipients of apartments. The share of the young families which have received the land plots for individual housing construction, made 27%.

Practice of construction of rent housing which is the most demanded and effective form of realization of public policy in the field of provision of housing for youth in world developed countries extends.

Not by all local executive bodies it is kept account the citizens needing housing. The priority of local executive bodies within the State program of housing construction in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2008-2010 determined inventory of lists of the citizens carried to socially protected segments of the population, for the purpose of reduction in compliance with the current legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Within this work identification of requirement of youth in housing, including married is necessary.

Today, exact data on requirement of young families in improvement of housing conditions are absent. Being guided by expert estimates, need of young citizens, including having a family, in housing aged from 21 till 29 years makes 85%. According to expected calculations the maximum annual need for updating of the housing stock, based on indicators of young people annually entering marriages makes about 4,5 million m 2.


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