КГУ "Карагандинская областная юношеская библиотека имени Жайыка Бектурова"

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Traditional occupation of Kazakhs — nomadic and semi-nomadic cattle breeding (sheep breeding, generally coarse and rumping breeds, cattle), including horse breeding and a camel. Agriculture owing to mainly arid character of the territory of dwelling of Kazakhs was generally subsidiary and where the abundance of water resources, and parallel occupation was observed. Kazakhs didn't prepare hay for the stall maintenance of cattle. The cattle and in the summer, and in the winter was grazed on open pastures. Uniqueness of this nomadic system consisted that Kazakhs wandered after the sun and a grass: summer they saw off in northern latitudes (where many juicy pastures and rather cool temperature), and winter — in the southern regions, is frequent in the foothills and semi-deserts (where the land relief protects from drafts and the snow layer on pastures isn't too deep). After accession to Russia and the subsequent reduction of pastures and reservoirs led to social delimitation and partial subsidence of the population.

During the Soviet period, despite huge victims as a result of the mass hunger provoked by Bolsheviks and large-scale repressions (about 50 % of indigenous people are lost), and also big losses of the able-bodied man's population in the Great Patriotic War the soldier, Kazakhstan from the backward suburb of the Russian Empire turned into the developed industrial republic.

Art processing of metals belongs to one of the most ancient types of applied art: blacksmithing, manufacturing of ware, jewels, the weapon, the saddles which have been richly inlaid with a bone, silver, gold details, and also saddles and a horse harness, clothes. It is known, the figurative traditional dwelling — yurta, a saddle and stirrups for a horse, art of mounted combat, national carpet patterns and ornaments of silver and gold ornaments - original inventions of nomadic cultures. The yurta is based on a wooden framework (кереге), covered with felt.

Shanyrak — the most top part of a yurta, serves for smoke passing from the center and partial illumination of an internal part of a yurta. Maintenance of temperature and ventilation also are provided with the folding bed curtains which size can be regulated, and a felt covering of the arch which can consist of two or more layers. In correctly designed yurta it is cool in the summer and in warmly winter. On its dismantling and assembly less than one hour leaves. In the middle of a yurta there is a center with a cauldron.

The main ornament of a yurta are felt carpets (текемет) and woolen carpet products (кыем). The interior also was enriched with various tapes with an ornament, application, weaving, an embroidery, weaving.


Simplicity and practicality, ease and speed of assembly, use of natural materials, ideality of a design and high transportability turned a yurta into the best dwelling of the nomad. Now yurtas are often used as a decorative ornament in museums, theaters, etc. public places. Are established during national festivals on the areas.