КГУ "Карагандинская областная юношеская библиотека имени Жайыка Бектурова"

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·         KAZAKHS, қазақ, алаш(self)

·         Ethnic homeland - Kazakhstan.

·         The total number of Kazakhs over 10 million people. Of them live in Kazakhstan 7985,0 thousand people (1999).

The Kazakh diasporas are available in many countries of the near and far abroad: in China - 1070 thousand, in Russia - about 700 thousand, Mongolia — 137 thousand, Turkey — 120 thousand, Afghanistan - 20 thousand, Iran - 10 thousand, in the different countries of Europe and the USA — about 4 thousand people. More than a third of all number of Kazakhs lives outside of the ethnic homeland.

The Kazakh language belongs to a Kypchak subgroup of Turkic group of the Altay language family. Characteristic is lack of dialects — unlike languages of the closely related Turkic people. The reason for that a nomadizm phenomenon — all Steppe was in active movement and intertribal communication. There were no objective conditions for the closed, isolated existence — and consequently in all huge territory from Irtysh to Volga there were uniform language norms. Now the Kazakh language is a state language of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The state program of revival and development of the Kazakh language (along with other languages of the republic) is developed and is put into practice.

According to census of 1999, 99,4 % Kazakhs own the Kazakh, 75 % — Russian and 0,7 % — English languages. Kazakhs, as well as all Turkic people, far back in the past had primordial, original graphics — runic writing. It represents special (generally a linear tracing) signs. The runic alphabet contains 28 letters transferred by 72 runic signs. Thanks to a nomadizm the Kazakh language remained is close to ancient Turkic language and allows solve problems of transfer of runic monuments positively. With arrival of Islam to the Steppe (the VIII—X centuries) among Kazakhs the Arab graphics started to extend. The main centers of literacy were mektebs and madrasah at mosques. In the late twenties XX century writing was transferred to Latin graphics, and in the forties on Cyrillics.

Belief of Kazakhs — the Sunni Muslims. During the pre-Islamic period in the territory of Kazakhstan Tengri's cult — worship the Eternal Sky dominated. Tengriism is one of the most ancient monotheist religions of mankind. Many attributes of a tengriism indicate the most ancient relationship with primordially east cults. Tengriism didn't leave the codified set of rules (as "Old testament" of Jews ", the New Testament of" Christians ", the Koran" Muslims etc.). The unique written source are the heroic poems epitaphs which have been beaten out by the runic letter on stone steles in Great Turkic Khanate (the V—VIII centuries) . In the XIV century, at the Gold Ordin khan the Uzbek Islam became the state religion of the empire. Nevertheless, in the middle of the XIX century S.Valikhanov noted distribution of Islam and commitment of some regions to tengrian traditions. In Soviet period Islam was poorly demanded. After independence finding Islam got in Kazakhstan a certain support of the state. At the same time the secularization of religion is a part of ideology of the state. At the same time with Islamic, at a life of the Kazakh people there are also separate ancient tengrian ceremonies and the traditions influencing ethno consciousness and mentality of Kazakhs: worship spirit of ancestors, to fire, sun, stars, sky, etc. Kazakhs are tolerant under the influence of nomadic and religious traditions.

Kazakhstan — the earth of an ancient civilization of the Euroasian continent where throughout centuries arose, perished and again powerful empires and the states rose from ashes. Here passed the major trading ways connecting the East and the West. The historical and cultural associations of ancient tribes existing in the territory of the country throughout many centuries, were a basis of formation of the Kazakh ethnos (Saks, Usuns, Huns, Kangly, Turks, Kipchak, the Kazakh Khanate).


Earth on which were born and there live the Turkic people of Eurasia, including and Kazakhs, in compliance to each temporary period was called on a miscellaneous: Turan, Steppe Oghuz, Desht-i-Kypchak, Turkestan. In the XX century Kazakhs received historical chance of creation of the independent state. Ideas of revival of ancient traditions, ceremonies and customs, historical and cultural values became especially actual and significant again for the young state.