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Customs and traditions

Customs and traditions

In any people family creation, wedding — one of important stages in human life. At Kazakhs this event — отау қөтеру or шанырақ көтеру is special pleasure for parents.

It is known that шанырақ is a relic of each family, a symbol of happiness and a reproduction sign. On customary law of Kazakhs the father allocated to the sons establishing a new family (отау), some share of the condition (енші). Nowadays also the main ceremonies of traditional wedding are observed: құда түсу (courtship), беташар (opening of the face of the bride), жар-жар (the ceremonial wedding song). On an ancient adat (the arch of customs) marriages were forbidden between relatives to the 7th knee. To this rule adhere and today.

In all Kazakh families the birth of the child is accompanied by such traditional celebrations, as шілдехана (a holiday on the occasion of appearance of the child on light), бесікке to fat (laying in a cradle), тұсау кесу (cutting trammels), сүндетке отырғызу (a trimming ceremony). Especially note in the Kazakh family бесікке салу— laying of the newborn in a cradle with a wish that it quickly grew and it was gathered good health. Also ancient tradition remained to decorate бесік — a cradle with feathers of an eagle owl, to save up the child from a malefice, damage and evil ghosts (the eagle owl at many Turkic people was considered as a sacred and preserving bird).

Leaving of the person in the world other also was accompanied by traditional ceremonies. Big responsibility was assigned to people who were entrusted to be informed a tragic message to relatives of the died. It was carried out by means of eстірту (consolation). On custom of the woman long mourn over the dead of songs - жоқтау ("a grief song") and observe strict mourning about one year. Numerous examples such жоқтау are models of song art. Commemoration is arranged for the 7th and 40th day, and in a year after death carry out the expert (funeral feast). In special cases the expert give and the next years. Died relatives and relatives bring to a family a condolence (бата жасау) and render a certain financial support. At Kazakhs the tradition of honoring of seniors that makes a basis of moral and ethical and moral principles of society is observed. Grandfathers and grandmothers are practically heads of families, are held in respect also love of members of household; very often the life of a family develops, proceeding from interests of the senior generation. The cult of ancestors, honoring of memory died, preservation of the family center are considered as pledge of preservation of a sort. Each Kazakh is obliged to know the family tree (at least to the 7th knee). Ignorance of the origin is considered ignorance. In this sense exists centuries-old шежіре (genealogy) which points to a genealogical origin of the person. One of manifestations of the sphere of cultural wealth of Kazakhs is oratory biys and aksakals (шешены) (magistrate judges and wise advisers) which were not only carriers of national foundations. To opinion biys the sovereign power of nomads — khans and sultans listened even. Kazakhs always were famous for the hospitality. The person who has come to the house welcomed as the guest of honor with words:" Төрге шығыңыз" (be arranged). Төр is the most worthy place in the house where invite to sit down staying. Was considered indecent at once to get acquainted with the guest (қонақ). Him at first treated with tea or koumiss and only then asked. The most tasty, Kazakhs reserved the best for guests (сыбаға). Any person who has come into the house, didn't release without a least entertainment (дәм ауыз тию). All this testifies to nobility of this custom.

The traditional clothes of Kazakhs were completely adapted for nomadic way of life. The men's wear consisted of a shirt (көйлек, жейде) and trousers (ыштан, шалбар). In a peace time easy cotton and wool fabrics were used. In a wartime the clothes were mainly from skin and a steel armor. In the winter carried short fur coats (купі). Put on various fur coats (тұлып, тон, ішік) from a tanned sheepskin or wolf and fox fur, sometimes from skins of expensive fur animals (a marten, a sable). On the head wore a skullcap or a hat from felt (қалпақ), in the winter — versions of caps from fur and skins (бөрік, тымақ, малақай, телпек) in the summer. The footwear consisted of leather boots (етік, мәсі), leather footwear (шарық, қалыш, кебіс). In the winter — stockings from felt (киіз байпақ) and from above high boots from rough skin (саптама етік).

The women's clothing differed variety depending on age and the status. Dresses were long, with a wide hem, under which put on trousers (ыштан, дамбал), is frequent from the same fabric. Over a dress wore sleeveless jackets (camisole) and caftans (бешпент) from woolen, and also from a velvet, brocade, velveteen and silk. The free dressing gown (шапан), and in the winter an easy short fur coat (купі) was outer clothing. Carrying of leather belts, both men, and women who at notable and wealthy men were decorated with gold and silver plaques and jewels is traditional. The footwear was graceful breed morocco and is frequent on a high heel. Skullcaps (тақия), various styles of a hat with fur laying (бөрік, орамал) were headdresses. Married women carried кимешек — a peculiar hood from the white fabric, closing the head, a breast and a back, with cut for the person. Atop кимешек women (in particular advanced age) tied жаулық — a scarf version. Sometimes instead of кимешек were used сұлама, орамал — the wide scarf covering a back and shoulders. Over a dress or in a set with trousers young women wore белдемше — the swing skirt embroidered by a pattern. During cold time years were popular warm dressing gowns covered by a velvet and fur coats from skins of fur small animals — ішік. As a whole both man's, and the women's clothing was skillfully embroidered, an obligatory element gold and silver details, fur components from valuable furs were popular. Clothes of girls and young women were generously made out by a national ornament. The preference was given to beautiful imported fabrics.

The suit of the Kazakh bride consists of the long white silk embroidered dress. Over a dress it is put on бешпент from a dark red velvet, and also silver and gold ornaments: suspension bracket (алқа), bracelets (білезік), rings and rings (жүзік, сақина), etc. A dress and бешпент constitutes uniform ensemble which finishes an ancient wedding headdress - сәукеле.


High, the cone-shaped form, covered with a velvet, it is plentifully decorated with jewels, the silver plaques, falling threads of corals and suspension brackets (жақтау, шолпы). The property status and the social status of the bride was determined by number of suspension brackets. Men also carried шекпены — homespun raincoats from wool which if necessary served as outer clothing. A model of art is шапан — the elegant long dressing gown which has been brightly decorated with an ornamental embroidery. Sometimes the basis of composition is made by large sockets in the form of the circles symbolizing the Sun. Tақия or кепеш (a small hat, a skullcap) - an important part of a toilet which was carried by all Kazakh men. Other type of a headdress - тымақ, is irreplaceable in severe winter conditions, which is sewed from wolf, fox fur or a sheepskin. Tymaқ continues to occur in the circle of cattle breeders and is a prototype of so-called caps with ear-flaps. Now fashion designers make certain efforts for introduction of traditional clothes or its separate details in daily occurrence.