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Formation of the Karkaraly external district


The main maintenance of political events of the XVIII century, especially since the middle of this century, establishment and strengthening of protectorate of Russia in relation to Kazakhstan is. That form of protectorate which includes some elements of vassalage is established. This form of relationship between Kazakhstan and Russia in XVIII - the beginning of the XIX centuries is that bridge which has given Kazakhstan to the Russian citizenship. In the 1860th years, with acceptance of «Temporary situation» 1869, since distribution on Kazakhs of the all-Russian laws, with introduction of a new control system and the statement of uniform system of the taxation the period of the Russian citizenship begins.

During a protectorate era gradually the most important actions of the political, social and economic, strategic character which purpose was complete submission of Kazakhs of the imperial power also were step by step carried out. The course taken on easing, and then elimination of the khan power, brought to the first administratively - to the territorial transformations of the Kazakh lands which have been carried out by imperial administration through the Orenburg and Siberian colonial establishments. For Northern, Central and East Kazakhstan (Average khanate) these transformations were carried out in the form of opening of external districts with submission to the Siberian establishment.

Elimination of the khanate power - business not one year, its preparation included the various measures directed on decrease in authority and sense of this institute. Khans should receive an administrative authorization; obedient khans got out dull uninfluential, but; clever and strong khans were ignored, independent and independent khans were discharged etc.

Among such actions there was also such approach: rivalry forcing between certain Kazakh leaders, initiation of internal political race for power, artificial multiplication of number of confirmed khans in one territory.

In 1822 the khan power on the average khanate was liquidated by Alexander's I decree.

The same year, after long preparation «The charter about the Siberian Kirghiz» - the special document explaining and regulating a new order of management of the territory of the Average khanate was adopted.

The "Charter" dated July 22, 1822, represents the extensive document consisting of 10 heads. In total in it 319 paragraphs are charged extra. Developers of the document, first of all the known Russian figure of the XIX century M. Speransky and the officials involved with him, tried as it is possible to capture more widely "Charter" action various aspects of life of the new accepted people.

The charter ordered formation of external districts with district orders at the head. Management and court in the district were carried out by the district order under the chairmanship of the senior sultan (aha - sultan), two Russian assessors, the officials appointed the chief of area, and two assessors from Kazakhs from «honorable Kirghiz», chosen by biy and foremen. The district order had office and translators. District consisted of townships with parish steward in charge, and parish of villages headed foreman.

The new administrative-territorial triad took root, thus: district- parish -aul. According to the Charter the aul – consisted from 50 to 70 yurtas, the parish - from 10 to 12 auls, the district - from 15 to 20 parishes.

Even before opening of districts the Charter was translated to the Kazakh language and dispatched on auls most men of weight. Especially importance gave to Karkaraly and Kokshetau regions - to possession of khans Bukey and Uali. In these regions also it was planned to open the first external districts.

The first external district - Karkaraly - was open on April 8, 1824. In it about 20 000 yurtas approximately were, calculation of the population was such is - about 60 000 males.

The decree about opening of the Karkaraly district was issued after a while - on July 24, 1824 when already really there was a district, all structure of officials worked, presence of the order was in the Karkaraly settlement.

Most the last on time of opening by the district which has not entered into these lists, was Kokpektin which opened in 1844.

The Karkaraly district was the largest among all 8 districts of the Siberian maintaining. Are close to it and Krasovsky's data according to which the newfound Karkaraly district «comprised 18 parish, 147 auls, 18 320 yurtas. The quantity of the population grew: if in 1850(according to P. Keppen) here lived 146 655 people, at the end of the 19th century (according to the first general population census of the Russian Empire) in the territory of the district lived 171 655 people from whom 169 656 people were Kazakhs.

After Karkaraly and Kokshetau districts within 7 years, till 1831, new districts it was not open. These two districts experienced the first difficulties in questions of arrangement and conducting business.

The main and steady structure of parish of the Karkaraly district was designated by 1830th. As a whole, 17-18 parishes made the main structure of the Karkaraly district.

The Karkaraly external district from the very beginning of opening was involved for a long time in Sarzhan Kasymov and Kenesary Kasymov's movement. Contemporary records show that all parishes didn't stand aside from this national movement.

The district by the end of the 1840th was equipped, there was a city building, three main picket lines were adjusted: 1) to Omsk through Bayanaul - the very first line; 2) to Omsk through Ku, Edirey - the new (additional) picket line; 3) Karkaraly's line - Akmolinsk. In the 1840th there were postman-Kazakh who carried "not especially important papers".

One more important road, the Maylygarin path, connected Karkaraly with Semipalatinsk, appeared after district opening.

Thus, at a boundary of XIX - the beginnings of the XX centuries Karkaraly remained the typical district city in which business and cultural life of the district was concentrated.

The First World War which has begun in 1914 bared putridity of a monarchic mode and was the precursor of new political, economic and social shocks fallen upon a share of colonial Kazakhstan.


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Krasovsky. Materials for geography and statistic of Russia, collected by general-staff officers. SP.,1868, P. 3, Area of Siberian Kirghizes.

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