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Middle Ages

The section of a historical science studying history of the Middle Ages, it is accepted to call medievalism (from the Latin word medium aevum - the Middle Ages). In the West European science the era of the Middle Ages contacts development of feudalism and covers time since the end of V to the XV century. According to feudalism phases, the Middle Ages share on early, classical and late. In the history of steppe societies of Eurasia the Middle Ages begin with emergence of the state educations of ancient Turkic peoples (VI century). The medieval history of Kazakhstan studies the events occurring in this territory at the time of existence of the state educations VI - the beginnings of the XIII century, the Mongolian gain, addition of the Kazakh nationality and formation of the Kazakh khanate as national state.

Ancient Turks. Kipchak era

The period of the early Middle Ages (the VI-XII century) in steppes of modern Kazakhstan it is connected with change of an ethno-linguistic and political situation. At this time the Turkic population becomes here ethnically and politically prevailing. As a push to changes the event which occurred in east part of Asian steppes served. In the middle of the VI century there arose powerful Turkic khanate - the state formation of the tribes bearing the name "Turkoman". As a result of military campaigns Turkic peoples soon extended the power to the next territories up to Manchuria in the Far East, , upper reaches Yenisei in the Southern Siberia, upper reaches in Amu Darya in Central Asia and the Kerch Strait in Black Sea Coast. The huge steppe empire was divided in the VII century on East Turkic and West Turkic khanate. The state of the western Turkic peoples included Central Asia, Dzungaria and a part of East Turkestan. Saryarka also entered into limits West Turkic khanate. Thus, under the power of West Turkic hagan it appeared both settled, and the nomadic population. In the VII century in Semirechye there was a state turgish, in the VIII century - karluk, and in the X century the state Karakhanids towered.

Creation of the writing was one of outstanding achievements of an ancient turk civilization. In the VI-VII centuries Turkic tribes of Central Asia including Kazakhstan, being a part Turkic khanate, and also West Turkic tribes of Nizhny of the Volga region, Don region, the North Caucasus, created the Khazar state, already used, own writing. At Turkic peoples signs were put on small wooden plates. Ambassadors were supplied with special diplomas. For example, the Turkic ambassador who has arrived in 598 to Constantinople, to the emperor Justin brought the message from hagan, written by "Scythian letters».

No later than the first half of the VII century in the Turkic environment on the basis of the sogdian letter there is the new letter, consisting of 38 signs geometrical outline. It was very convenient for fixing on a tree or a stone [Livshits, 1980, page 3-13].

For the first time the ancient turk letter was open in a valley of Yenisei in the 20th of the XVIII century by the German scientist who was in the service of Peter I D. Messershmidt and captured Swedish officer I. Stralenberg accompanying it. Because of similarity with the Scandinavian runic letter, they called the Turkic letter "runic". This name was fixed in a science. Then other opening followed.

In 1889 the Danish scientist V. Tomsen found a key to the alphabet and decoded the first texts. Except Yenisei, monuments of the runic letter of Turkic peoples are found in Mongolia, Semirechye East Kazakhstan, Nizhny the Volga region, Don region, in the North Caucasus. Among them monuments in honor of Bilge-hagan and his brother, commander Kyultegin (732-735), Tonyyukuk's monument are most known.

The runic letter of Turkic peoples occurred long and finally went out of use after the XI-XII centuries. According to scientists, it was forced out by the Arab letter which was extended in connection with acceptance by Turkic peoples of Islam [Livshits, 1989, page 78-84].

In lying to the North from Syr-Darya and Balkhash, steppe spaces of Kazakhstan since VIII century amplify kimaki which create the state with the center on Irtysh. The Kimak governor accepts the highest Turkic title - hagan. Al-Horezmi scientific X-th century, notes so: "Hakan - the main tsar of Turkic peoples. Hakan is a khan of khans, that is the leader of leaders just as Persians speak shahanshash". The son hagan, the person by name of Dzhanakh ibn Hakan al-Kimeki (the X-XI centuries) wrote the book which was used subsequently by the Arab geographer of the XII century al-Idrisi in the description of the country kimaks. The Arab scientist in the work notes existence at kimaks a number of several tenancies with the governors living in the cities. Tribes entered into this era in a sphere of influence of the kimak’s state kipchaks. Of this year Klyashtorny and T.I.Sultanov so characterize a role of these tribes at the end of the I millennium:" In the VIII-X centuries prevalence kimaks and kypchaks at first on Altai, in Priirtyshie and East Kazakhstan, and then in Priural and the Central Kazakhstan becomes defining factor in this huge steppe region» [Klyashtorny, Sultanov, 2000, page 109-110].

Since XI century domination passes to steppes to kipchaks. Since then steppe spaces from Itil (Volga) to Altai are called in the Persian - and Arabic-language literature of Desht-i- Qipchaq (The steppe of kipchaks). The kipchak’s era begins, all extend kipchak dialects more widely. Further and for Itil, to the Black Sea steppes kypchak tribes therefore, in a modern science the territory of Kazakhstan carry to East Desht-i- Qipchaq are settled. In the XIII century during the Mongolian gains (in them participated both Mongols, and Turkic peoples) the kipchak statehood collapses, but kipchak’s language even more becomes stronger, becoming language of conquerors, and extends further.

Everywhere in Saryarka are found archaeological monuments of times of the state educations of ancient Turkic peoples and kipchaks.

Characteristic monuments of an ancient Turkic era in steppes of Asia are burials with a horse and funeral fence with stone sculptures. These types of monuments are found also in Saryarka.

In 1957 M.K.Kadyrbayev investigated burial of the person with a horse of 6-7 centuries the natural boundary Egizkoytas, in a valley of the river of Tokyrauyn (the Aktogay area) [Kadyrbayev, 1959, p. 184-186]. Burial was made in a big hole (2,10 x 1.90 m), depth of nearly 2 m. The human skeleton settled down in a northern part of a grave, and horse - in southern. Died it was put on a back and it is turned by the head to the East. Near his jaw the iron tip of an arrow, and on a breast - the remains of a birchbark quiver is found. The iron ring for suspension of a quiver was attached to a belt from dark yellow silk. Scraps of this silk, a zone bronze buckle and a pendant stone subject are found. Under a brush of the left hand of the died there was an iron knife. The dead man was accompanied by the destroyed horse. Bridled and ridden out, it lay on a stomach the turned-in feet. The animal was directed by a breast to the west, but the neck is bent to the North. Between human and horse skeletons bones of feet of a ram - doleful food took place. The grave was covered with earth and a stone, and the stone barrow in diameter of 7 m, by height of 0,60 m from above is erected.

To the archaeological monuments of an ancient Turkic era which had cult appointment, funeral fence belong. They occurred for a long time - from VI to the IX centuries the ancient Turkic fence were erected for the sake of commission of a ceremony of commemoration for the dead person (man). The fence represents the quadrangular construction which walls consist of the plates driven by an edge. The space fenced with plates, is filled with stones. Near a fence there can be a stone sculpture - the sculptural image of the dead person or stele (a stone column). The sculpture is turned by the person to the east. Sometimes a number of stone columns departs from it. These columns are called in scientific literature balbals. Once balbals were driven, and now almost all are tumbled down. A number of scientists assumed that balbals meant the killed enemies. According to one more opinion, balbals are put by representatives of tribes participating on commemoration and childbirth as a sign of participation (presence).

The Kipchak era in East Saryarka is presented by kipchak sanctuaries with sculptures which belong by the IX beginning of the XIII centuries. As well as the ancient Turkic fence with sculptures, these monuments were cult (most likely, funeral) constructions.

The kipchak sanctuaries differ from ancient Turkic fence not only a structure. If near a fence  one sculpture is necessary, sanctuaries include different quantity of sculptures - from one to five. Sculptures of a kipchak era the same as ancient Turkic represent either the head of the person, or a human figure (but also entirely). However sculptures from kipchak sanctuaries are excellent from ancient Turkic and they are difficult for confusing. On zone and figured sculptures of kipchak time the person with a vessel in both hands is embodied. Hands of some sculptures are cramped on a stomach. Between fingers of the connected hands roundish deepening sometimes is beaten out. Seldom hands are shown freely lowered. Sculptures meet the designated female and man's signs of a floor. The clothes weren't represented almost. Thus the top of the head of many sculptures reminds a headdress. The image of the furious soldier, characteristic for an ancient Turkic sculpture, doesn't meet in the kipchak. The Tee image of eyebrows and a nose on kipchak sculptures remains, but, possibly, has other sense. Sculptures from kipchak sanctuaries represent Mongoloids among whom there are not enough persons with big eyes. According to scientists, kipchak sculptures recreated images of ancestors.

Kipchak sculptures find a certain similarity to polovtsian statues of XI century - the beginnings of the XIII centuries from the Black Sea steppes. On polovtsian sculptures the person with a vessel in both hands is also represented. Besides, the way of installation of sculptures in kipchaks and polovtsian sanctuaries is similar. Polovtsian sculptures were put both in calculations on a surface of barrows, and in holes under kurgan embankments. The "hidden" polovtsian sanctuaries usually contain wooden sculptures. Such coincidence isn't casual, because half-sheep (comana) were lineal descendants of those migrate groups of kipchaks which occupied the Black Sea steppes in the XI century.

At the beginning X ІІІ the campaign of the Mongolian armies on the territory of Kazakhstan century began. Mongols grasped Semirechye and the Southern Kazakhstan and through these territories left in Central Asia. The science has no historical sources in which it would be specified that in the Central Kazakhstan there were fighting battles with the Mongolian armies. Still during lifetime Genghis Khan divided the won territories among the four sons. The central Kazakhstan got to eldest son Dzhuchi. After a while son Dzhuchi Batu in the western part of this territory created the Altyn Orda and all breeding unions of the Central Kazakhstan were a part of this state.

In the initial period Altyn Orda Ulytau becomes the center of the ulus Zhoshyhana (Jochi), one of the sons of Genghis Khan. On his grave some time later, his descendants - the rulers of Golden Horde - erected in his honor mazar extant.

The power of the Golden Horde extended, mainly, to the Volga region, the North Caucasus, the Crimea, on the extensive steppe spaces lying to the west of the Volga River. To the middle of the XIV century in the territory of modern Southeast Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan Mogulistan was formed.

Ashes of the great commander are based upon one of tops of mountains of Ulytau, the emir of the Altyn Orda Edyge which name is mentioned in heroic legends of the people of Altai, the Urals, the North Caucasus, the Crimea, Central Asia.

In 1312 the Uzbek khan declared Islam the state religion of the Golden Horde. Continuous civil strifes in Mongolian uluses led to a gradual decline of the central power. Aggressive campaigns of emir Timur led to disintegration and division of the Golden Horde. On a place of the Altyn Orda in the Central Kazakhstan there is a state of Ak Orda on the basis of which Abulkhair's khanate was formed.

Remained both a historical monument, and a written source about campaigns of Emir Timur in Ulytau. Timur's chronicles were provided by Dinastiynye in «The glory book» Sharif Ali Nayzidi's hell dynes. In it told: «Having arrived to Ulytau, Timur looked at green steppes and high mountains. Then it collected the armies and ordered to construct a big burial ground. Skilled masons wrote down this event on a stone». This stone was established on Altynshoky in Ulytau's mountains. It was found for the first time by K.Satpayev. At present the stone is stored in the Hermitage of by Sankt — Petersburg.

Ak Orda - the first large state education on a local ethnic basis during the after mongolian period in the territory of Kazakhstan. Its territory was populated with Turkic tribes which long since lived on this earth as a part of kipchak association. Also during the Mongolian invasion from east regions of Central Asia new groups of the Turkic and after mongolian population here moved. Not numerous groups of Mongols were quickly dissolved in the local ethnic environment, and in the language relation there was a uniform layer. In Ak Orda by the end of the XIV century Nogai Orda (the Mangyt Orda) stood apart in her western territories. And at the beginning of the XV century for short time the khanate of shaybanid Abulkhair who has extended the power to the considerable territory of Ak Orda towered. In Western Siberia the Siberian khanate was formed on a local Turkic basis. Formation of the states of Ak Orda, Abulkhair, Mogulistan's khanate, Nogai Orda, the Siberian khanate played an important role in development of statehood of local population, finally, it led to addition of the Kazakh nationality. At the same time, these states in different degree influenced consolidation and addition and some other nationalities - Nogai, Bashkir, Kirghiz, Uzbek, the Siberian Tatars [the History Kazakhstan, V.2, 1997, page 157].

In XIV - the beginning of the XV centuries in the territory of East Desht-i-Kypchak difficult ethnic, ethnopolitical processes in several state educations proceeded.

Ulytau's sacred value remained and during an era of the Kazakh khanate. In the XIV century it was erected mazar over Alash's grave of the khan, one of founders of the union of Turkic tribes in steppes of Kazakhstan. On one of Alash's versions the khan lived in the VII—VIII centuries. In the Kazakh legends it is considered the primogenitor of all Kazakh khans and the founder of the state.

With Ulytau's name are connected the biography and such historic figures, as Ketbuga, Kerey, Zhanibek, Kasym, Tauka, the Barrack, Kuchum, Abylay, Abulkhair, Akzhol bi, Kazybek bi, and many other.

These processes came to the end with addition of the Kazakh nationality and formation of the Kazakh khanate.

Formation of the Kazakh khanate

During an era of the Kazakh khanate, in the XV-XVII centuries, the main lines and features of material and spiritual culture of the Kazakh ethnos were fixed.

The fact of formation of the Kazakh khanate occurred in Western Zhetysu's territory. Exactly here migrated Kazakhs of the Average Horde under control of the sultans Girey and Zhanybek, living in the territory Central and South Kazakhstan parts [the History Kazakhstan, V. 2, 1997].

Processes of further strengthening of the Kazakh khanate, expansion of its territory occurred in parallel to the statement of the state in the Syr-Darya region, in South Kazakhstan territory. Exactly here, in the at Syrdarya cities the Kazakh khans saw the economic and military basis.

The southern Kazakhstan initially was a zone of contact and mutual adaptation of two main types of cultures characteristic for Central Asia - nomadic cattle breeding settled and agricultural. This marginal historical geographical position caused not only a cultural and economic originality of the region, but also its special role in the history of relationship of the state formations of an antiquity and the Middle Ages.

The southern Kazakhstan was the traditional economic and political center of previous state educations in the territory of medieval Kazakhstan (Ak Orda, Abulkhair's khanate).

For the Kazakh khanate this edge should become the center of economic, cultural and political life. There was an economic rise, in the numerous cities the craft, trade developed.

Lands on the bottom and average Syr-Darya Current were the main areas of winter stay of Kazakhs Average and Younger Horde .

Saryarka was vitally connected with the territory of average Syr-Darya. This area was especially highly appreciated by Kazakhs of the Average Horde as convenient winter pastures. Proceeding from geographical features of the Kazakh steppes, long since in the territory of East Desht-i-Kypchak there was a tradition of a cattle breeding economy according to which the population of steppe regions during winter time passed to the southern areas - in valleys of Syr-Darya, its inflows, to Karatau's foothills. This manufacturing lead time existed at Kazakhs during an era of the Kazakh khanate.

Therefore the Central Kazakhstan and Average Syr-Darya for Kazakhs of the Average khanate were the uniform territory. For Kazakhs Younger Horde regions of the Bottom Syr-Darya, Priaral had the same value.

Fight of the Kazakh khans for possession at the Syr-Darya region was long and persistent as in the strategic relation of other exit wasn't [the History Kazakhstan, V.2, 1997; History of Kazakhstan, 2001].

The course of this fight, questions of foreign and domestic policy of the Kazakh khans, expansions of the territory of the khanate, etc. aspects from history of the Kazakh khanate are profoundly considered in numerous works of the Kazakhstan scientists.

During an era of the Kazakh khanate which capital was the city of Turkestan, the Central Kazakhstan was one of strategically important regions of the state. Among caravan tracks two were especially allocated, functioning from an antiquity.

The Sarysu road (Sarysu Zholy) functioned on the west. The route began from the main highway of the Silk way in the south, through Turkestan reached Ulytau and, branching, went further to the north — on the Urals and the Volga region. On the bank of Sarysu there is well-known Tamgalytas (Tanbalytas) with numerous patrimonial locket Kazakhs, repeatedly here the Kazakh childbirth held important meetings and councils.

Karkaraly (Karkaraly Zholy) the road functioned in the east. To the south it left through Hantau and Shue, and in the north conducted to kimak Priirtysh and further to Western Siberia. The Karkaraly road called also Khan Road (The Khan Zholy).

Among numerous architectural constructions of an era of the Kazakh khanate the lamaists temple or the Kyzylkent palace (Қыз Әулие, Қызылкеніш сарайы), constructed in the XVII century the oirat specific princes supporting with Kazakhs friendship is allocated.

Kyzylkent palace is in 250 km to southeast from Karaganda city mountains Kent on Karkaraly area territory. Monument is located in the gorge Kyzylkenish( Red treasury) on the right coast the same river. Though old time the monument among local population is called «Қыз-Аулие» (The sacred maiden) all researchers in the works called it as «A Kyzyl-Kench palace», «the Kyzylkent palace».

Archeological excavations of Kyzylkent palace were begun in 1985 by archeological squad of Institute «Kazprojectrestoraion».Further researches of a monument were continued by archaeological expedition (the student's group "Eureka" created at the initiative of professor A.K.Abilev) of the Karaganda State university in field seasons of 1986-1987.

During research the main palace with three separate constructions, also from a burial ground located round a monument was dug completely out, 10 burials were investigated. Before excavation of a wreck of a palace represented a hill from the earth and a stone in diameter to 25 m and height to 2,7 m, densely grassed and dog-rose bushes. Round a palace ruins of three separate constructions and the burial ground which has also grassed and a bush were fixed. From the southeast party of a palace, before an entrance there are two ditches of an oval form depth to 2 m.

The main palace after excavation represented a crosswise building in the plan from four rooms with the platform. Walls of a palace are combined from the raw flagstone. Thickness of plates of 0,10-0,20 m. On construction corners at construction the largest plates having sometimes length 0,6-07 m and width in 0,4-0,5 m kept within.

Stone and earth shaft from outer side of a construction reached height to 2,2 m with decrease in 3-5 m from walls on level of a modern day surface. In a construction blockages at walls to 2 m and gradually decrease to the center of the main room to 1 m. During clearing of blockages in a construction in a large number the semi-decayed dies, poles and logs met. To fix any order in an arrangement of these logs and dies it was not possible.

Length of the southeast party of the main room of 11,6 m, northeast 12 m, northwest 11,8 m, southwest 12,2 m. The small rooms attached from three parties of the main room, have entrances in width of 1,1-1,3 m. From the outer side of a construction these rooms of entrances have no. The room located from the northeast party of the main room has the sizes 2,8 x 2,5 of m, a room from the northwest party of 4 x 3,5 m, a room from the southwest party of 4,6х3,5 m. In the center of the room located from the southwest party of the main room, on a floor there is a puncture from fire. Walls of small rooms adjoin walls of the main room without a laying sheaf.

On the architectural style (2 floors, a balcony, columns), and also, judging by found in a course of archeological excavations to finds, the Kyzylkent palace isn't characteristic for the Kazakh structures. As showed three-year research of a palace, the monument is a cult construction and, most likely, it was constructed as a lamaist monastery (temple) in the 17th century by oirats.

Results of researches convincingly show also that the monument was occupied very short term. Lack of traces of long accommodation of people only insignificant ashpan, the smallest quantity of bones of animals, etc., and also says small number of finds that it wasn't rendered habitable.

The carved wooden ornaments found in a course of archeological excavations of a palace, are similar to ornaments (ornaments) of lamaist temples of Mongolia in which these ornaments were widely used «in an ornament of facades and interiors by a carving, especially on a tree». Data on clay bagatelles from palace ruins are interesting. In the article «From Pavlodar to Karkaraly» N. Konshin testified: «In ruins of a palace there are bagatelles from white clay in the form of a cone with the expanded basis and the rounded-off top. In these bagatelles constantly there are wheat grains» [Konshin, 1901, page 55]. I.Chekaninsky one of these bagatelles agrees, found in ruins of the Kyzylkent palace, stored in an archaeological collection of the Semipalatinsk museum earlier. I.Chekaninsky, considers "bighead" and gives her pictures in the work devoted to the Kyzylkent palace.

Thus, in the XVI century the central Kazakhstan was a part of the Kazakh khanate with uniform economy and with uniform ethnos.

In XVI century the Kazakh people showed the heroism in fight against jungar armies. In the territory of the Central Kazakhstan the Kazakh armies won a jungar army twice, but this fight lasted for two hundred years.

At Lake Balkhash between Kazakhs and Kalmyks fierce fight burst in spring of 1729. This place received the name "Anyrakay" because there is a legend that the Kazakh steppe within several days was disclosed by groans and we cry enemies. In war with jungars in one of days when Abylay the khan was on hunting, it was captured by Kalmyks near Ulytau (present Karaganda area) and is released in 1743.

Fight of the Kazakh people against jungar invasion put forward the whole galaxy of prominent politicians, batyrs, statesmen. By right it is possible to consider as natives of Sara Arch Abylay of the khan, Kazybek bi Kaldybekula, Bukharzhyrau Kalkamanula.

The big role Sara Arch lives in board of Abylay was played Kazybek bi by (1654-1775) and Bukharzhyrau (1668-1781). Kazybek bi took active part in public administration at khans Tauke, Semeke, Abulmambet, Abylay. Actively participated in liberating of Abylay from jungar captivity. Kazdauysty Kazybek bi with coming to power of Abylay of the khan actively participated in public affairs. He was the main adviser of the khan and one of the most authoritative biy. The name Bukharzhyrau is known to descendants as a name of the outstanding national poet. In the creativity Bukharzhyrau dreamed of association of three Kazakh hords under the strong state with the uniform center. Therefore it in every possible way supported Abylay of the khan as capable to realize this dream.


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