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Material and spiritual culture of ethnos

Material and spiritual culture of ethnos

·         Uighur, self-name Uighur. Uighur language is included into southeast group of Turkic languages.

National crafts

Aspiration to fine, esthetic perfection wooden gate and doors, sun blind of the houses covering with mosaic glaze clay vessels were reflected in work of the ancient masters decorating with decorative elements of a column. National jewelers masterfully owned such receptions, as molding, stamping, forging, a stamping, an engraving, unprofitable and openwork filigree. National creativity testifies that their authors cared of esthetic, decorative qualities of household goods. Art of manufacturing of national musical instruments revived: dutar vestibule, nai, Satara, godzhaka, ravapa, sunray, Karna, tebelvaza, tambourine-dapa and others.

Art processing of metals belongs to the most ancient developed types of Uighur applied art: the forge craft, manufacturing of ware, the jewelry, a traditional set of metal utensils of the Uyghur includes various to destination ware: for washing, medicinal infusions, teapots, samovars, trays, washing devices, bowls, mantocooking. Among them meet, as it is underlined utilitarian, and highly artistic samples.

The special place in art processing of metals belongs to jeweler art. At all times jewelry enjoyed wide popularity of the Uyghur, and carried them both men, and women. Big art was reached by the Uyghur in manufacture of woven and felt carpet products. Uighur felts and nodular woolen and silk carpets were famous far outside of East Turkestan, they served as a subject of wide export. In the world market Uighur carpets were appreciated on a level with the Persian.

One of ancient types of Uighur applied art is the embroidery. It generally has nature of house production. In each house of the woman were able to embroider and served needs of the family. Girls prepared for themselves a dowry for the wedding which considerable part was made by the embroidered products.

Ceramic production — a traditional type of Uighur art craft.

Woodcarving as a type of decorative registration was widely used by the Uyghur when manufacturing traditional furniture, ware, children's toys.

Leather belts were accessory of a man's suit at the Uyghur. Belts were ornated by the figured silver plates covered with the engraved, stamping, filigree pattern, inserts from semiprecious stones. In registration of belts the polychrome enamel and gilt.

Traditional clothes

Noting the separate moments of material culture, in particular, traditional clothes, it is necessary to tell that it in many respects lost the lines. Earlier the man's suit of the Uyghur of Semirechye consisted of a long wide swing shirt (койнэк) with a narrow high collar and wide trousers (тамбал), refueling in boots. Over a shirt put on short Bashmet, it a long dressing gown (чапан) with a narrow high collar and narrow sleeves. A dressing gown tied up a belt from a long piece of a cotton fabric (бэлваг). As winter outer clothing the fur coat from a sheepskin (clown) served. Feet put on narrow soft boots with high tops (мэсэ), them carried with leather galoshes which removed at an entrance in the house. Wore boots with selection (отук). Pistons (чорук) were footwear. A headdress in the summer — (top) skullcap, in the winter — the cloth cap (top) which has been lined with sheep fur, at rich — fur of an otter, a sable, a beaver.

Women wore a long wide shirt of tunic breed with the small high collar, sewed of a cotton fabric, and also the wide wide trousers which were narrowed to ankles. The cut and a fastener on a shirt of married women were in front, on a breast, and at girls — on shoulders. The right half of a breast of a shirt of married women was decorated with an embroidery. Over a shirt of the house and on the street carried often long, to knees, sleeveless clothes without fasteners (кэмзэл). Going out of doors, put on a dressing gown with narrow sleeves (чапан), and over it the second — longer and spacious (перенджэ), or a short quilted jacket. Wore also the Chinese breed a jacket (хтай-чэкойнек), decorating with a peculiar application (madi-khan). In the winter put on also a fur coat from a sheepskin. As footwear the thicket was served by soft boots with galoshes. A headdress — a skullcap or a scarf, in the winter — a flat warm cap with fur rubbers. The brocade round hat with the sharp top collected in small folds, strengthened by color stones was a festive headdress at rich women. Over a cap put on a long muslin scarf. Women didn't close a face, at the sight of the extraneous person were slightly covered with a scarf.

National cuisine

Uighur culinary art is a peculiar monument of material culture of the people. It synthesizes in itself West and East interference, an antiquity and the present, besides this great skill, the imagination, beauty and harmony of taste. Dishes of Uighur kitchen are so various and kind, it is not obviously possible what to capture.

The most favorite and widespread dish of Uighur kitchen is "lagman". It is the long noodles prepared from thin threads of dough, stretched of thickly cut plaits, moving with specially prepared gravies. Each dish of Uighur kitchen has the symbolics. This dish call a love dish. At the Uyghur, seasonally, "lagman" shares on 4 look. In the spring having added for a dish prepares from green onions, sprouts dzhusy, a celery and a garden radish. In the summer — from cucumbers, arrows of garlic, short and long haricot, tomatoes, green and red pepper, eggplants, garlic, onions. In the autumn — from carrots, a kohlrabi, a radish, turnip. In the winter — from dried and salty vegetables. Also there are types "lagman", preparations of noodles differing in the way depending on thickness, a type of a flour etc.

"Manty" in symbolics of dishes call a dish of Dzhigits. Their steam in the special adaptations consisting of system of sieves, inserted each other — "каскан", or the flat vessel weaved from a cane "жимбил". They as well as choshurya pelmeni, prepare from the unrolled dough with a stuffing. A variety of this dish depends on a way of preparation, dough and stuffing components. Manta prepare from fresh, sour, yeast dough, the stuffing also happens various, it and a pumpkin to meat, onions, zhusay, a fig, a clover, green onions, a quince, vegetables etc.

"Choshurya" prepare for the newly-married couple for the second day of wedding, as a symbol — a wish of a possession of many children and wellbeing. "Choshurya" can submit both the first, and the second dish.

Often the Uyghur cooks pilaf. Generally this dish of guests. For a large number of people pilaf is cooked by "Ash-pyaz" (cook) who has been specially invited to wedding or on commemoration. Preparation of pilaf demands big skill. Cook pilaf from rice, meat, carrots and onions, often filling it with garlic or raisin.

"Samsa" — one of the most esteemed ancient Uighur dishes. The present name of samsa — samsu. These are the pies filled with forcemeat from meat and onions, a pumpkin, vegetables and fruit. Prepare samsa in tone or on tandyr (cone-shaped furnaces for a bread batch). It is tandyr "samsa" in oil, in an oven, in a cauldron. Ways of preparation of dough for samsa depend on where it should prepare. For example, for tandyr samsa dough knead salty and abrupt, for samsa in a cauldron - friable and weak, dough also can be puff or barmy.

Along with "samsa" it is necessary to mention about "lashing", "gosh nan", "oluk nan".

"Lashing" some kind of chebureks filled with greens, zhusay, a clover, sprouted wheat, fennel, cabbage, coriander. The stuffing from small chopped meat with onions is possible.

"Gosh nan" — meat bread, the pies filled with meat and onions, baked in a cauldron.

"Oluk nan" — steam bread, the roll prepared from carrots, a pumpkin, zhusy, green onions etc.

Culinary art of the Uyghur used recognition everywhere in Central Asia. Uighur cuisine is in many cities and settlements.

National customs and ceremonies

Traditional customs, the ceremonies connected with the birth of the child, funeral, wedding remain. These customs in Uighur wedding are most brightly shown. The Uyghur has no payment for the bride — bride wealth, the groom only incurs all expenses on carrying out wedding celebrations. Wedding is accompanied by music, dances and traditional national songs. In the evening at the house of the groom; the bride before entering into the house, lead round brightly burning fire three times.

The Uighur ceremonies connected with the birth of the child are peculiar.


Modern Uyghur executes all ceremonies connected with the birth, education of the child: the birth, a appellation, solemn laying of the child in a cradle — "boshuk-that", forty days — "кирик суйи", ritual trimming — "суннэт that", etc. The woman according to custom gives birth to the first child in the house of the parents. In 20-30 days prior to childbirth mother the young goes to the house of the son-in-law and asks of permission — "тилэп елиш" — to take away the woman in labor to itself. Mother is accompanied by relatives and relatives with gifts. After the delivery all cares on the care of the child and the woman in labor lay down on shoulders of mother. It is considered that the newborn and his mother within forty days are especially treated to action of malicious forces and consequently they need to be protected. In general all ceremonies connected with motherhood and the childhood, pursue one aim, by all means to keep life to the child. Access to the woman in labor is limited during the whole period. For the 12th day there is name-adverb for what relatives of the husband and the mullah are invited. About forty days women come to the house of mother with gifts and the prepared dishes, some kind of help of mother in care of the daughter. For the fortieth day the ceremony of bathing of the child — "кирик суйи" is carried out. For this purpose in one pan put a salt pinch, adrasman, 1-2 pieces of sugar of lump sugar, coins. All present two wooden spoons pour in water in an empty pan from capacity with water. Each woman participating in this ceremony, should say the wish to the baby. In this water, its heating a little, the child bathe, then for the first time cut hair and nails.