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Material and spiritual culture of ethnos

Material and spiritual culture of ethnos

·         JEWS, Yehuda (the self in Hebrew), yid or ayid (self in Yiddish), a person belonging to the Jewish people. Ethnonym Jew in Church Slavic language goes back to the Greek. ebrayos ("Jew"), in turn, goes back to the Hebrew Ivry, ie "(alien) from the other side." Greek. - Ebraios, Lat. - Hebraeus, Russian "Jew" comes from the Greek. iudaios iskhudi from the Hebrew. The original name "iskhudi" referred to the descendants of the fourth son of Jacob Iskhudy, and later - to the people of Judah state, regardless of their tribal affiliation. Speaking in Hebrew Jews called themselves Yisrael (Israel). The number in Kazakhstan - 6743 people. (1999)

Hebrew — the modern updating of Hebrew language created on the basis of language of the mishnait period. Treats Semitic languages of a new step. Official language of the state of Israel. In the history of Hebrew the periods - bible, after biblical, talmudic, medieval, times Haskalah (18.) and the present.

Belief - generally Judaism. It is one of the most ancient monotheist religions, arose in 1 thousand BC in Palestine. state religion of Israel. The Hebrew ethnos was created during the 2nd by thousand BC in the territory of Canaan (modern Israel) as a result of integration of Semite nomads cattle-farmers (possibly, hebrew, or habiru Mesopotamic inscriptions) and farmers of oases of Canaan.

As Jews lived in the dispersion, each diaspora had the history. There is it and at Jews of Kazakhstan. There live Jews almost in all present regional centers. The first stage of settling began still in with opening of the Great Silk way, and it lasted to a power capture Bolsheviks in 1917. Jews were left here for consolidation of the Soviet power as party, Soviet and trade-union workers. The second stage lasted to the middle of the 20th. From this point prior to the beginning of the 30th there is the third stage of arrival of Jews to Kazakhstan. First of all, it is dispatch of bund and trotskists (and L.Trotsky). Besides, these years many experts for participation in republic industrialization were sent. They participated in creation Balkhash, Shymkent and other industrial combines, the Karaganda mines, the Turkestan-Sibir railway. Was many Jewish doctors, teachers, art workers. The fourth stage is connected with the 2nd world war when to Kazakhstan thousands people, including and Jews from Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Poland were evacuated. Many at the end of war evacuated, but the considerable part settled. And the last, fifth stage - the end of the 50th - the beginning of the 60th. There was a cosmopolitism and the bourgeois nationalism, well-known "Business of doctors". Defamation under these articles, mass prosecutions and dismissals of Jews in the European territory. The USSR caused resettlement them to Kazakhstan. The large number of Jews arrived to Karaganda, they completed the whole research institutes. And the second period - virgin soil development on which there arrived many Jews.

In Kazakhstan Jews didn't create the culture. They joined multinational culture of the republic and rendered all help in its development. It concerns history, pedagogics, medicine, law, etc. the science directions, and also literature, theater, music and cinema. Among Jews there were executives, representatives of the financial and economic sphere, chiefs of mines, buildings, the large enterprises.

National customs and ceremonies. In the houses from time immemorial Jews attach to jambs of doors protecting from evil ghosts мезузу, i.e. a pergament roll with two fragments from Deuteronomy. The importance in a Judaism is given to a ceremony of ablution of believers in the special equipped pool with rain and spring water - mikve. Only the accepted ceremony of ablution is allowed to a prayer. The trimming ceremony is from time immemorial observed at Jews. According to the Jewish law, trimming (хаттафат дамбрит) to the son is made by the father though other person whom call "мохел" can also. Ceremony begins with a greeting to the child:" Baruch of a hub ("" it is blessed coming"), and comes to an end with a prayer for health of the child then his name is disclosed. Operation is done by houses, in hospital, a synagogue. At Jews wedding is carried out magnificently and solemnly. The portable canopy - an abuse is open-air put. The rabbi betrothing the groom and the bride, reads aloud the marriage contract or ksubu. For Jews the concept Kosher, i.e. permissibility or suitability something from the point of view of Galakhi, i.e. laws and the norms containing in the Torah and the Talmud is very important. Kosher extends on competency of the person to make these or those legal or ritual actions, on serviceability of subjects of a cult — the Torah roll, tphilin, mezuze, dikva etc. Kosher can be and the person, if it honest and decent, and also his clothes. But the main thing, the food, in particular, products of an animal origin should be kosher. In Israel observance Kosher surely. At Jews there is a lot of holy sites. First of all it is Jerusalem, the Eternal city in which, according to a belief, there is a stone from which the world — a basis Stone is created. The main shrines of Earth of Israel are Hramov the mountain and the Wailing Wall, burials of forefather — Abraham, Isaak, Iakov, and as patriarchs, prophets, wise men and righteous persons.

National holidays

Iom Kipur — put atonement of sins, amnesties and clarifications. The ceremony kaporoys — a gift in the victim of a cock fire chickens is the day before carried out. Its sense in clearing the house from are nasty and to avert God's anger.

One of the most cheerful holidays — Sukot, or a holiday Kushchey. It falls on harvesting time, and it is considered a nature holiday.


Very much Jews love the Hanukkah - light and pleasure holiday. Tu-bi-shvat, it is New Year of trees, Day of fruit - a holiday of the nature of Israel during which it is accepted to submit on a table fruits of the Holy Land - grapes, a fig, grenades, dates etc. Among memorials: Accident - this term is designated death of 6 million Jews as a result of the organized prosecution and systematic destruction by their Nazis in Germany and in the territories grasped by it in 1933-1945. Outside of Israel, in Kazakhstan, in particular, this date is celebrated on April 19 in honor of the revolt beginning in the Warsaw ghetto in 1943.