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Material and spiritual culture of ethnos

Material and spiritual culture of ethnos

·         Poles, self-name Poles. Polish belongs to the western branch of Slavic languages.

Polish belongs to a West Slavic subgroup to Slavic group of an Indo-European family of languages. Polish language has dialects Wielkopolska, Lesser Poland, Masovia, Silesia and Kashubian. The literary language is formed on the basis of Wielkopolska, low-Polish and, later, Masovia dialects. The most accepted periodization of the literary language: ancient polish language — till 1500, average-Polish - 16 - the 2nd floor. 18 centuries, new Polish — about the 2nd a floor. 18 century. Writing on the basis of the Latin alphabet. The most ancient monument of writing - Świętokrzyskie sermons (the middle of the XIV century).

Religious accessory — generally Catholics, is Protestants. The traditional wedding ceremony included courtship, arrangement, a betrothal, wedding, a wedding feast in the past. On wedding two "teams" - the groom and the brides consisting of their relatives and friends resisted.

The national clothes of Poles depend on in what voivodeship they live. At the Kazakhstan Poles in clothes motives Ukrainian and Belarusian, since immigrants generally from these places are looked through.

The culture of the Polish people developed for eyelids, was enriched Ukrainian and after resettlement Kazakh with cultures. The Polish culture is a component of the European culture with the features which are shown in all spheres of life: special rituals at the birth of the person, a baptism. Were trained in rituals of weddings and funeral, always reached for knowledge. However their possibilities at will of the Soviet laws were limited to receiving secondary vocational and higher education. It rather small amount of doctors and candidates of science from among persons of the Polish nationality speaks. A red thread through all activity of Poles there passes Catholic religion which underlies all culture. Despite rigid twenty years' commandant's supervision, Poles kept the religion. Thanks to it, they could endure the most terrible. Some of them brought with themselves prayer books, learned youth to prayers, sang church songs, copied texts of prayers. At many Poles, especially in rural areas, the image of the Mother of God hangs. Traditions of a baptism of children, a sacred participle, wedding, confessions revive. The number of parishioners of Catholic arrivals increases. Parishioners not only participate in construction of churches, they are engaged in their ornament, supplying them necessary, buy books and attires for church services, liturgical subjects, bake wafer, etc. In 1996 in Kazakhstan and Central Asia 52 arrivals were registered.

Ethnic Polish cuisine, despite decades of joint accommodation with Ukrainians, remained in centuries, thanks to Catholic religion. The main most esteemed holidays at Catholics are Christmas and Easter (Revival of the Christ). For these holidays the obligatory set of certain dishes prepares. So, for December 24, Christmas eve, the last day of a small post - Christmas Eve — prepares twelve fast, meatless dishes: a herring in Polish, a herring marinated, salad herring, a carp in Polish, a pike in Polish, a various house batch, a borsch Christmas Eve, a beetroot soup with ears with a mushroom stuffing, porridge, trickled pastries, fool, or compote and surely fish dishes, especially baked carp and it is obligatory kutya. Poles love dumplings with a various stuffing: with cabbage, a potato, mushrooms, apples, cherries. All this in a combination to honey or sugar. At preparation of the second dishes and salads there was indispensable use of vegetable oil of fragrant preparation. A widespread dish at Poles remains bigos — fermented or fresh cabbage which extinguish with meat or sausage, onions, mushrooms, spices within several days. Before a meal surely break wafer, wishing thus each other all the best, give gifts. After "sacred evening" carol-singing, the chants having character religious, household, predictive, desired and comic began. On December 25 — the most esteemed Catholic holiday — the First day of Christmas. Mood raised, cheerful, benevolent. After a night service where all prepared dishes were consecrated, orderly, as well as "vecherya", the Christmas long-awaited breakfast begins. The head of the family congratulates all on Jesus Christ's birth and the first tries "kutya" — this dish remained from "evening". Kutya — this main and obligatory course for Christmas holidays, prepares in a special way from the cleaning wheat welded in a sugar syrup with honey, raisin, poppy and other tasty additives. After kutya it is possible to pass to other dishes — the fat boiled, baked, baked meat and various dishes from it and with it. The second not less important holiday is Easter. Special dishes, only for this holiday, colored eggs and Easter cakes are characteristic. Other dishes — the most various, but all of them it is very beautiful and tasty are prepared. The breakfast begins "chokaniye" colored eggs and the use at least an egg slice, as symbol of longevity and life continuation. After a breakfast children and youth go out of doors, where competition on a breaking of colored eggs begins. The winner had the right to take away the broken egg.

For New Year children and youth before sunrise went on neighbors and sowed wheat in their apartments, sentencing: "I sow, I sow, seeding, health, happiness and a good harvest I wish". For it owners presented sowers with money, house cookies and other sweets. For Poles All Saints' Day — is on November 1 special, put memories on died when people go on a cemetery, light there funeral candles.


The traditional cuisine of Poles is famous for confectionery - wedding and New Year's cookies in a bird species and animals, gingerbreads, pies, cakes, etc. In villages bake wedding "loaf". Usual drinks — tea, coffee from cereals and black. Traditions and holidays. Christmas and New year in Poland accompany traditional carnivals, celebrations, exhibitions. Skoromohy, in freakish masks and suits with fantastic dolls amuse public. Poles have Mazhanna's heating which personifies an image of winter. This old custom is still popular. Especially it is loved by children. School students go on March 21 on the small river to heat an effigy of winter. This day is considered in the first spring afternoon.