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Materials from periodicals

Materials from periodicals

History of the Kazakhstan’s polish

ONE OF the MOST IMPORTANT mechanisms of harmonization of the sphere of the international relations is promotion of the fullest and authentic knowledge of the ethnic societies living in our country.

So the history disposed that the ancient earth of Kazakhs became a rock dyne for representatives of many people which have appeared here for various reasons: historical, political, social. Is among them and representatives of the Polish people. On Census of 1999, in Kazakhstan lived 47297 Poles, in the Karaganda area - 5572.

For the first time Poles came to the territory of Kazakhstan in X \ЛП-Х1Х centuries. It were participants of liberation movement exiled and those who voluntary came here, people of different professions poets, writers, artists, doctors, engineers, lawyers. Many of them left an appreciable trace in the history of Kazakhstan: the poet of Zolinsky, written the poem "Kazakh", the artist the B. Zalessky, published album with the Kazakhstan sketches, A.Zatayevich, the known musicologist and the researcher of the Kazakh folklore.

The following stage of appearance of Poles in Kazakhstan is connected with deportation which began 70 years ago. It is known that from the middle of the 30th years, in process of strengthening of a totalitarian mode in the USSR, the strip of the political repressions which has mentioned destinies not only individuals, social groups, but also the whole people, the ethnoses which are violently moved from the former places of residence on new, in particular to Kazakhstan began. One of the first Poles of borders got to this category Ukrainian the Soviet Socialist Republic

On April 28, 1936 SNK USSR was accepted the resolution under a signature stamp "Confidentially" for its No. 7760120 "About immigrants from Ukraine" according to which of 35820 Poles living in Ukraine, 35739 were moved to Kazakhstan. The social status of Poles was defined as "politically unreliable elements" border areas.

The next wave of deportation for Poles came in 1939-1940 when the Western Ukraine and the Western Belarus were a part of the USSR. In total not acceptable to the Soviet mode representatives of these republics were moved according to the scheme fulfilled already in the 20-30th years to Siberia, Central Asia and Kazakhstan. The resolution SNC USSR from October 18, 1940 to Kazakhstan from the western areas of Ukraine of profit 6478, from Belarus - 203 families. According to other resolution from April 10 of the same year for its No. 497-178 in Kazakh the Soviet Socialist Republic were moved from the western areas of Ukraine and Belarusian by the Soviet Socialist Republic 60667 (according to other data - 61092) members of families of the subjected to repression participants of the insurgent organizations, officers of the former Polish army, policemen, gendarmes, landowners, manufacturers and officials of the former Polish government. They were placed in the Aktyubinsk, Akmolinsk, Kustanay, Pavlodar, North Kazakhstan and Semipalatinsk areas. 36729 people are settled in collective farms, 17923 - in state farms and 800 - in working settlements of the various industrial enterprises. As a whole on the eve of war by inhabitants of the republic there were 104207 persons of the Polish nationality.

The Polish citizens moved in 1940-1941, were considered as the contingent "the Polish osadnik and refugees". "Osadnik" is immigrants from Poland, generally the former military personnel of the Polish army who caused a stir in the Polish and Soviet war of 1920 and has received lands in areas, populated Ukrainians and Belarusians. For April 1, 1941 in Kazakh the Soviet Socialist Republic were 5370 Polish "osadnik and refugees".

In L.Beria's reference addressed to I.Stalin about the status of the former Polish citizens it was noted that for September, 1941 from the western areas of Ukraine and Belarus (from the territory of the former Poland) 389382 persons were moved to the rear regions of the USSR. One of them (120962 special immigrants) were in prisons, camps and reference places, others (243106) - in the special settlement ("osadnik" and so forth), the third (25314) - in prisoner-of-war camps. There were they and in the Ministry of Internal Affairs Karaganda camp (Spassk office), organized for prisoners of war and interned. According to regional state archive, from 1941 to 1950 in this camp there were 1208 Poles, both taken prisoner, and interned from frontline territory.

On July 30, 1941 the agreement on restoration of diplomatic communications between the USSR and Poland was signed. The agreement was accompanied by the protocol on position of the Polish citizens in the USSR according to which the Decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR from August 12, 1941 about amnesty of the Polish citizens was adopted. In total in Kazakhstan (according to incomplete data) from 61092 people amnestied 51164. The Polish citizens declared in 1939 by Soviet, and in 1941 - again Polish, received the status of the Soviet citizens.

Together with all Soviet people of different nationalities in the heaviest conditions of a wartime Poles as special immigrants worked at combine mines "Karaganda coal", on building of objects of Karaganda, Sa-rani, Temirtau, in specially created in territories of settlements for special immigrants state farms. They worked also on mines of East Kazakhstan, buildings the railways, at a construction of various objects.

In documentary materials of regional state archive there are indirect data that during war in the territory of the Karaganda area functioned RC Polish patriots under the chairmanship of Brenshnayder, and according to his petition in February, 1945 in the settlement New Tikhonovka was open by the decision of the Karaganda Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People's Deputies initial Polish boarding school in the native language of training for 60 people:

At the end of war many Polish special immigrants hoped to return home, but in the 1944th, after the introduction of the Soviet Army on the territory of Poland, deportations and references in camp of members of Army Craiova, political and party figures again began. For January 1, 1949 of Poles 28130 people were, including in the territory of the Karaganda area on the settlement there were 340 families (1629 special immigrants) the Poles who have located at station Big Mikhailovka. Here the Polish settlement received the name "Warsaw-2". Number of diaspora, by some calculations, made 100 thousand people.

According to the resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR from January 17, 1956 Poles and the members of their families moved in 1936 from boundary areas with Poland, were struck off the register in bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. By it was declared on receipt that removal of restrictions from them on a special settlement doesn't involve return of the property confiscated at eviction, and that they have no right to come back to places, from where they were moved.

The mode entered in relation to Poles, deported in the mid-thirties, was cancelled only after Stalin's death. They were considered as citizens of the Soviet Union and consequently some of them only in the 50th years could return to the native land. But in Kazakhstan there was quite numerous part of the Polish population which the work reached good results. Among them Heroes of Work: N Golovatsky, Item Tomarovsky, P. Chizhevsky, G. Lewandowski, T.Ostrovskaya, journalist of Page Sinitsky, scientific E.Lyubchansky, S. Luchinsky and others.

In Kazakhstan 15 regional societies of the Poles united in the Union of Poles of Kazakhstan function. Activity of the union and societies is directed generally on Polish revival as native, cultures, traditions, studying of history of the Polish people. 9 representatives of the union are members of Assembly of the people of Kazakhstan.

In 1988 between the Ministries of Education of Kazakhstan and Poland the cooperation agreement, according to which annually about 100 young men and girls of the Polish nationality or the Polish origin and 10-15 representatives of other nationalities going to the Republic Poland for receiving the higher or secondary vocational education is signed.

Now in Poland more than 500 young men and girls of the Polish nationality and more than 50 - Kazakh are trained. Therefore to the agreement from Poland there come teachers for training of Polish children to the native language at schools of Kazakhstan.

Thus, the representatives of the Polish people deported in days of a totalitarian mode found for themselves the second homeland - Kazakhstan where on a level with other nationalities develop original culture, the native language, customs and traditions, make a powerful contribution to prosperity of our multinational state.

M SULEYMENOVA, assistant professor KARSTU


Suleymenova, M. History of Suleymenov's Kazakhstan Poles/m//Industrial Karaganda. - 2006. - 20th Agrarian Party of Russia.