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Material and spiritual culture of ethnos

Material and spiritual culture of ethnos

·         CHECHENS, nokhchiya, hahcho (self-name), in Kazakh — sheshen, represent one of the most ancient people with original history, ethno culture and unique anthropological type. Today it is the largest ethnos in the North Caucasus.

Chechens — Muslims, but customs of the Chechen people are so peculiar, as well as customs of any Muslim people. The main custom — freedom which is more expensive some air and bread. In the severe conditions Chechens wish first of all freedom. On the second place it is necessary to put generosity. It is combined with pride. Chechens appreciate hospitality in themselves and in people. The respect (сийдар) is especially necessary in relation to the woman, and also to the senior. In family customs it is considered that the son, for the sake of respect for the father, should satisfy any his request though in fire to jump.

Yah — this competition in nobility. It means always to go in advance. And the main thing not to change internally under all circumstances of life. It is told: "For yah, having good fellow, a place everywhere it is open". "Yah yolush the edging" (the good fellow having yah) — is our heroes. Now for all "yah" consists in holding national customs.

The Chechen Islam and Islamic fundamentalism — it not same. The Chechen Islam doesn't oppose itself to other religions and beliefs. Chechens are Muslims of Sunni sense. The beginning of Islamisation of Vainakhs belongs to the XIV-XV centuries. Before there were attempts of distribution of Christianity.

The main religious holidays and ceremonies developed historically throughout many centuries and are based on fundamental principles of the Koran and Islamic traditions. At the same time they were formed taking into account ethno cultural features of Chechens. Kurban-bayram and Uraza treats number of the main religious holidays (Markh), month of Mavlyut and Birthday of Prophet Mahomed is celebrated by public prayers and sacrifices. Spiritual temples of Muslims are mosques and madrasah. Now mosques are available practically in all settlements of Chechnya. Shrines of Muslims are Mecca and Medina, and also places of burial of founders of Sufi awards in Chechnya.

Traditional occupations of Chechens — agriculture, animal husbandry, construction and trade. Unfortunately, development of these branches of economy now have not the best times. Chechens mainly live in rural areas in sound houses with an outdoor economy. The house for Chechens — is an indicator not only wellbeing, but also honor and conscience of the owner. It not only family place of residence, but also place of reception of guests. And the guest at Chechens — business sacred.

Chechens, as a rule, live big patriarchal families. In them strong economic and teip links remained.

National clothes

Vainakh ritual man's and female suits: Vainakh military suit — "Бустамийн чуоаъ", a man's suit of Piety — "Povtal", "Ghowtal", a female suit, a suit of mercy, compassion and love — "Pabli" - "Ghable".

Three Vainakh suits it is possible to transfer, that is to plan a contour of spiritual integrity, moral unity and all depth of humanity of spiritual way of Vainakh character. Three Vainakh suits, thus, act symbolically, as "letters of God" (Jorge Borches) in destiny of Vainakh people.

Man's military suit — man's youth and youth: " Бустамийн чуоаъ" — "the dress verified to roots of hair by courage.

Man's suit of Piety — a man's maturity: "Maturity, wisdom, hardness, readiness for war and peace": "Pota — Is scarlet!" — Rise! Call on fight in word and deed!"

Female full ritual dress — feminity — "evigwieblich": "Pabli-Ghable" - "rlo - gho" - the help, "ayba" — I lift, I can, as in English: ability - ability, able — "айбало" — "ло" — I give, "On - Ball! — "the help at an o'clock of test, in trouble", "On Bala — Lo" - act, an attire, "On - the help — is to (do) — gives" - the help "compassion" — "mercy" — "solidarity of an ally — the Vainakh merciful sister participation" — "help".

Vainakh ideal of the personality can give definition after a short formulation of an ideal of external and internal Freedom in Kishiyev Abubakar, Kunta-Hagi's words "Adat" and in the most general form as follows:

External neatness, Internal concentration, thinking Maturity, Brevity of a set phrase, Wisdom of the decision, "Alpha" and life "omega": "You should — means can!"

Traditional food in the Chechen families — meat, dairy and vegetable products. Due to the rapid development of the industry, scientific and technical progress and a population urbanization the last decades tendencies of increase in a share of urban population and introduction of modern elements in a life and culture amplified. The share of the intellectuals and specific weight of brainwork increased.

Religion, customs and ceremonies of the Ingush people

·         Ingushs - Muslims of Sunni sense, take place different currents (накашбандийа — a Sufi brotherhood, кадирийа, etc.) acts of the Ingush dictionary tell about penetration of Muslim culture into life of Ingushs. The Moslem is and to this day the main cultural elements which feed some part of the Ingush intellectuals. The bulk of the Ingush population observes all instructions of Islam: ceremonies of trimming, burial, commemoration, daily fivefold prayers, posts, religious holidays. The custom having religious character is observed. In particular, to payment fitrshti(in Ingush «marhi Sakha») — a charitable donation which each Muslim, irrespective of age, brings after the post termination in a month Ramadan. This donation raised by clergy is formal, intends for distribution among the poor. It makes about 2,5 kg of grain which it is possible to replace with the corresponding sum of money respectively.

The main religious holidays are: Maulid Annabi — a holiday of «Christmas of the prophet» — Mahomed, noted 12th date slave al-avval. Except prayers and alms distribution, the holiday includes reading aloud the verses eulogizing Mohammed; Ley-lyat Al-Kadr — night of the solution of destiny, the night of power mentioned in the Koran night of the 27th date Ramadan (in Ingush « лейлатыл кадри бийс »). This night "sending" to Mahomed Koran was begun. Annually the same night the Allah, allegedly, makes decisions on destiny of each person, considering his desires stated in a prayer. Ramadan — the tenth month of a Muslim calendar, month of a post. According to tradition this month first "revelation" was transferred to Mahomed. The post this month is one of the main duties of each believer. The termination of month and a post is noted as the main Muslim holiday (in Ingush «марха»). Three-day celebration of the termination of a post at Ingushs turns into welcome days, tables are covered. Congratulations and a meeting of guests — it is thin the conceived special ritual when mother (hostess) meets and accepts congratulations. And if in the house the marriageable girl, it turns involuntarily into shows without superfluous efforts on that. Here it is already visible ability of the girl to accept and serve guests according to the Ingush traditions is indicative. Holidays are distributed as follows: the first two days celebrate men, the third day of the woman. Al-Adkh's Ides (al-kabir Ides, Turk man. Kurban-bayram, Arab. — the holiday of sacrificial animals, in Ingush «гIурба») — the main holiday of Muslims which begins the 10th dates storage-hidzha and lasts 3-4 days. Al-adkha Ides coincides with end of a ceremony of annual pilgrimage to Mecca. The head of the family should sacrifice by the possibilities from the seventh share in cattle (cattle), a ram or at least a cock in memory of how Ibrahim was ready to sacrifice to the Allah of the son Ismail. According to ritual meat give poor and partially use for a festive meal of a family.

Special prayers, alms distribution, visit of graves of ancestors and clothes updating enter into ritual of holidays.

Proceeding from traditional norms of universal morals, at Ingushs the important role is played by custom of hospitality on which the guest, regardless of a nationality and religion, receives rest, food and a lodging for the night. The owner bears full responsibility for his life and safety. Violation of this custom always attracts severe censure, and at times is regarded, as the criminal act.

Among Ingushs, as well as at other Caucasian mountaineers, the twinning which was fastened by a weapon exchange was long since widespread, and communications were supported by the subsequent generations, this custom exists and until now.

One of the most important traditions of Ingushs - respect for parents and seniors: for them make way, they have the right to speak the first, younger have no right without the permission to put in a ward seniors, to interrupt them, to argue with them, to sit down at seniors, be they even members of one family. There is a tradition of the people — a bewaring of the son-in-law from the mother-in-law and the father-in-law, thus the son-in-law can see never all life them. Destiny of the younger — to serve big brothers, the father etc. during food, women are at this time in kitchen and on the half. Certainly, time inevitably influences modern life of Ingushs.

Numerous and solemn there are weddings. In old times prize-winning jumps, dzhigitovka for which specially in advance prepared were arranged. Usually betrothed bride was at the parents year, and even two therefore time was enough that relatives knew each other better.

National clothes, musical instruments

The Ingush national clothes during late time differed nothing from traditional Caucasian clothes of almost all nationalities if not to consider historical military ammunition of men and distinctive clothes of the Ingush women — a headdress of "hens-hars" which was noted by travelers and ambassadors of other states.

The men's wear — the Circassian with gazyrs ("bustami-chuki"), had mission for carrying in solemn occasions and in a wartime. Gazyrs were used as cases for storage of charges of gunpowder and self-made bullets. Casual household clothes of men was beshmet (semi-caftan) fitted, without a collar, with an fringe from a band («govtyl»). During winter time beshmet usually put on under the Circassian. In a campaign put on from above a burka ("tukul-fert") with bashlyk («palchyk»). The headdress during cold time, in the winter — a papakha ("holgyz-cue"), and in work — a cap («кертыттул кий») is obligatory. In the summer, during hot time, a hat from wool of house manufacturing ("begen-cue"). Shirts of the man carried with cuffs on sleeves, a collar — a rack, self-made buttons from threads, type of peas ("ulg-fating"), and also free wide trousers, and standing — legs. Girded with the narrow Caucasian belt decorated with silver plaques.

The clothes of women consisted of dresses for solemn occasions, daily socks and, special, for mourning visits. Festive and wedding dresses («чуки»), very expensive, shity gold and silver threads, put on with a special set into which entered a belt, a cap tarboosh, a breast ornament from the silver, inlaid with gold. In old times carried a headdress which was called "hens-hars".

Traditional musical instruments were: three-stringed balalaika («дахчин пандыр »), harmonica, zurna, bow instrument («чендырг») and drum ("фатт").

Ethnic cuisine (dishes)


The entertainment in Ingush is called «шу». The honorable dish prepares from meat of specially killed ram and if the guest hurries up, from a turkey or chicken as it is demanded by custom. Meat submit in the form of the large pieces seasoned with a potato and greens. The tradition demands, that to the guest "honorable" parts of ink were submitted: the head cut half-and-half, a chest and the fat tail watered with fat. To the meat separately submit the seasoning prepared on the basis of a broth, eggs and greens, garlick sauce by the food end, on a wish of the guest — a broth. Besides, to meat on a dish submit boiled trickled pastries from fresh dough on corn or wheat flour («халтымыж»). During food the special thin etiquette based on principles of the Ingush traditions is observed. On the second for tea prepare and submit house manufacturing halvah, sweet pilaf from rice with raisin, prunes and the dried apricots, different sweet flour products: pies, brushwood («зокаж») and other foods different national character.