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Material and spiritual culture of ethnos

Material and spiritual culture of ethnos


·         TATARS - group of the Turkic people (Tatars of the Average of the Volga region and Priuralya, Astrakhan, Siberian, Crimean, Lithuanian, etc.), development and which formation occurred in different historical conditions. The Tatar language belongs to Turkic group of the Altay family of languages.

The modern Tatar language belongs to a kypchak subgroup of kuman group of Turkic languages as a part of the Altay family. Language of Tatars of the Volga region was created as a result of consolidation of various Turkic components and is the successor of ancient Turkic language. At the same time it is necessary to recognize influence on it Finnish threat, Slavic, Arab and Persian languages. On the basis of literary "Turkic peoples" in 15 century the old Tatar literary language which served as a means of communication of citizens of Kazan, astrakhans, Prioks kypchaks (mishary), the Bashkir, the Siberian Tatars, Kazakhs and partly Kyrgyz started to develop. In 19 century there is a formation of modern Tatar language which incorporated riches of national informal conversation and the old Tatar literary language.

Since mass acceptance of Islam there was a transition to the Arab graphics, at the beginning of the 20th century it was replaced with Latin which was replaced by CYR.

Belief — Islam of Sunni sense. The small part of Tatars preaches Christian religion of orthodox sense. Modern Tatars some anthropologists carry to Mediterranean race with small (to 14 %) Mongoloid signs. Ethnonym of Tatars appeared in 6-9 centuries among the tribes living to the southeast from Baikal. In 13-14 centuries it is the name it was extended to some people of the Golden Horde. In 16-19 centuries Tatars called many Turkic people living on the suburb of Russia. For some of them the name of Tatars became the self-name.

Traditional occupations - agriculture and animal husbandry. Various types of crafts were long since developed: bone carve and metallurgical production, copper processing, pottery, jeweler art. Jewelry made of precious metals, into them inserted jewels: turquoise, a cornelian, topaz etc., were used by corals and pearls. Bulgar-Tatar masters applied stamping and an engraving, molding and a blacking, and also filigree various degree of complexity. Art issued festive leather boots, and also daily soft boots without heels, had the widest demand at the population.

Traditional clothes of Tatars

Daily type of men's wear of Tatars is the shirt with direct cut in a collar. Shirt sew long, at people of advanced age and at children it reaches almost to knees. It is made only of light fabrics: white, white-pink, grayish etc. Man's trousers provide a wide step. Trouser-legs become wide, especially for men of advanced age. The top part of trousers rather short also comes to an end with a band (elastic band). Over a shirt the camisole - usually from a dark material lined rushes. The camisole densely clasps a body to a waist, and extends below and falls folds. From color monophonic fabrics it is accepted to sew long outer men's wear dzhilyan. It is put on a camisole or kazakyn. Dzhilyan from a smooth fabric of dark flowers call chikmen. Chikmens sew also from a thick fabric with a turn-down collar. Dzhilyan and chikmen is represented by the Tatar options of widespread clothes of Turkic peoples — chapan. Long kazakyn on cotton wool — bishmet carried in a transition period from kazakyn to a winter fur coat. Bishmet on fur is used by various furs from a sheepskin to fox and korsachy’s fur. All these types of clothes can be belted a belt (bilbau) which usually consists of the long - to five meters of a piece of the color fabric which ends are decorated with a fringe.

The most widespread clothes of the Tatar woman - a long dress, wide in a hem. The dress gets off with a fringe and laces, an embroidery, is decorated with semi-cuffs. Over a dress put on a camisole differing from man's by more various embroidery. The collar, floors, armholes and a hem of a female camisole are usually sheathed by a strip of a color matter, a braid, fur. Female camisoles sew mainly without sleeves. Women wear also fur coats, bishmets, dzhilyan which differ from man's big grace, more careful furnish.

Man's headdress of Tatars is the skullcap. Skullcaps can be sewed 2 of a velvet, velveteen, brocade, silk etc., there can be embroidered, decorated, especially children's skullcaps. The skullcap put on all drieug types of headdresses: a summer felt hat, a cap with a fur edge, a winter headdress with a looking like tower skeleton (kolakchyn). The scarf was a daily headdress of women. If necessary on a scarf the shawl attacks. As a headdress before the Tatar used also tastar — a towel shaped long cover with a rich embroidery and laces. A specific female headdress is kalphak. It can have a form of a long direct stocking, the brush is attached to the cone-shaped which closed end. Over a scarf wear various caps. Cap top quite often decorate with an embroidery or openwork metal elements, it is possible to cover with a shawl a cap. The most widespread type of footwear were ichigi (chitek), reminding leather stockings with a soft sole. Man's ichigi have tops to knees, can be with color tops, them sew from ufti or morocco.

Among other types of the Tatar traditional footwear it is possible to specify shoes (boots), boots, half boots, a sandal, monophonic and color felt boots, etc.

Traditional cuisine

In a traditional cuisine of Tatars the big place was occupied by a flour, grain, potatoes. From different types of meat the preference was given to a horse-flesh and mutton. For the summer it was accepted to cook dried and salty meat, including birds, especially geese. The important place is occupied by dishes with application of dairy products. Some types of salads are applied: salad from tomatoes and onions, salad with mushrooms, salads from a sorrel, nettles, from dandelion leaves, from a plantain, potato salads, from crude carrots, etc. Cook cold appetizers from meat, fish, a jelly. As snack use also fried cooled meat and the meat cooked in the father-in-law, kazylyk — one of types of house sausage which prepare from a fresh horse-flesh or beef, the card. Favorite food — dried, salty, and also smoked goose. Some snack move hot. For example, kalzha — it is slightly roasted and then the cooked meat roll. Transparent broths (meat, fish etc. are popular. ). The most widespread soup is soup (аш) with noodles. On a meat broth soup with trickled pastries (salma), kullama-ash (boiled slices of meat with trickled pastries is cooked.

Widespread dish - bealyash which in a general view represents completely closed pie with a stuffing. From sour or fresh dough one of pie versions — sumsa prepares. From fresh dough prepare the kystyby — food from the thin leaf of dough folded double, katlama— a dish such as a puff meat pie, as well pelmeni. From dough bake different flat cakes, rolls, kalatches, baursaks, fritters, pancakes, etc. The original dish peshkean kaymak (boiled sour cream) is made of fresh sour cream by evaporation.

Except tea, various compotes, dense fruit and dairy kissels, and also shirbat (water-ice) — sweet drink from various fruit and berries prepare. Of the inflated grain make sweet drink a bouza.

Widespread low alcohol drink achy ball (mead).

Traditional holidays

Tatars have many traditional holidays having centuries-old tradition. Many holidays throughout centuries disappeared from the people life, some were borrowed other people and acquired national features. Carrying out established periods have the majority of holidays enough definitely: a holiday of the first flowers at the beginning of March, Nauryz. The beginning and the haymaking end, completion of harvesting turned into cheerful holidays. Approximately at the end of September the holiday of Sembele ("an ear, grain") was had. In former times Tatars had a traditional holiday zhiyn (collecting) which represented a holiday of a meeting of friends and relatives. Now it merged with other cheerful holiday under the name a drinking bout — saban to a thuja (a plow holiday).

On a drinking bout various competitions are carried out: on a weight raising, on a lasagna on a smooth column, on circulation on an inclined pole, on water dragging in buckets with yokes, on sack-race, with the stuck feet etc. Some ceremonial holidays of Tatars remained. One of them Yamgyr tileu — (Rain calling) is led to droughty summer: children sing cheerful chastooshkas, inviting a rain, than all pour over each other water.

Throughout centuries the Tatar people created, improved and kept models of oral national creativity: fairy tales, dastany, sayings, proverbs, riddles etc. The majority of dastans is represented by various versions of ancient all-Turkic eposes. Exist dastany about national athletes ("Alpamsha", "Kadysh Mergen", etc.), historical ("Chura batyr", "Idegey", etc.); much of dastans it is devoted to feeling of love. Among the last a special place "Yousaf and Zuleykh" occupies, the Stake of Ghali created based on the well-known work. Some fragments dastans turned into independent historical songs ("The song of the captive to Suyum-bika", "the Tragedy of Kazan" etc.).


Traditional clothes

The Bashkir suit is extremely diverse and rich.

The man's suit includes a spacious long tunic shirt with a turn-down collar and long sleeves, trousers from a dense fabric with a wide step and a short sleeveless jacket. Festive shirts and belts decorated with an embroidery and application. At an exit to the street put on a dressing gown from a dark fabric. In a solemn or official situation put on silk or velvet dressing gowns, beshmets. To be protected from cold sheepskin fur coats, short fur coats, cloth dressing gowns, cloth chekmens, sheepskin coats helped. Traditional man's headdresses were made of a sheepskin, fur, felt, purchased fabrics. Caps from an otter, a beaver, from fox skins or fox pads were appreciated.

Felt bootsand boots with soft leather heads and soles with high cloth and chromic tops were widespread footwear.

The women's clothing was more various. Dresses and wide trousers were worn next to the skin clothes of Bashkirs. Married women under a dress carried a breast bandage. A dress put on the fitted sleeveless jacket or the dressing gowns, sheathed by ranks of braids, metal plates and coins. Ancient elyans and chekmens were embroidered with a multi-colored pattern, were decorated with color cloth, a braid, stripes of corals, a cornelian, nacre, coins, jeweler metal plates. Headdresses showed age, family, a social property status of the person. Female headdresses, especially festive, differed bright decorative effect, a variety of stripes from corals, coins, silver metal plates. Young brides carried a cover kushyaulyk, decorating it with an embroidery, and under the beard band — coins, beads. Together with it or with the usual scarf tied in a Muslim way for two next corner, often put on the small hats caps which are especially popular in northern areas.

Women's shoes – leather shoes, boots, bast shoes, footwear with linen tops. Female boots with a color line, woolen brushes elegantly looked.

Necessary attribute of a female costume complex had numerous ornaments – bibs, nakosnik, earrings, rings etc. which carried out protective function.

Jewelry: rings, bracelets, earrings, graceful suspension brackets — were carried out in equipment chekan, punchings, engravings, filigree; metal was recovered by inserts from a cornelian and turquoise.

Oral national creativity

Bashkirs created the rich folklore connected with the early period of their history. In works of oral national creativity views ancient the Bashkir on the nature, their worldly wisdom, psychology, moral ideals, social expectations and the creative imagination are art reflected. The genre structure of the Bashkir national creativity is various: epos and fairy tales, legends and legends, riddles, songs (ceremonial, epic and lyrical), bytes and munazhats, etc.

The Bashkir epos, as well as epic creativity of other people, arises during an era of decomposition of a primitive-communal system and reaches the perfection during a feudalism era. At the beginning of the XX century large works occurring among the Bashkir with original plots were fixed: the "Urals-batyr", "Akbuzat", «Zayatulyak and Hyukhyla», legends on animals "Penalty Yurga" («A black ambler») «, Akhak-cola» («Lame Savrasy») «, Kongur-Bug» («A brown bull»), etc. At the same time at the Bashkir the plots meeting in folklore of other Turkic people («Alpamysh and Barsynkhyla», «to Kuzykurpyas and Mayankhyla» and others) are widespread.

Among traditional genres of the Bashkir national song outstanding situation borrows uzun-kyuy — a treasury of the Bashkir national musical and poetic culture. In uzun-kyuy most deeply national character of the Bashkir people also is comprehensively expressed.

The Bashkir household fairy tales enter into the atmosphere of nomadic life, in a life of hunters, cattle-farmers. Fairy tales always come to an end return of the hero home and a victory.


The yurta was the traditional dwelling the Bashkir till 17–18 centuries.

The utensils in an economy the Bashkir were made of various materials. As at many nomadic or semi-nomadic people, the ware from tanned skins of pets is widespread. Among zaural the Bashkir memories of vessels from camel skin remained. Used a skin of a horse more often. Of a trunk did a big vessel of haba for koumiss storage in which held to 12 buckets. Made also wineskins of the whole skin of a sheep, a goat or a calf. From skin manufactured bags, a horse harness, belts, footwear.

At the end of the XIX century the ware manufactured from different breeds of a tree – birches, lindens, larches began to prevail. From birch outgrowths and roots manufactured bowls for food, ladles, scoops, spoons. Did ware with a plug-in bottom – high tubs, for storage of a flour, grain, narrow vessels for preparation of koumiss and oil knocking down. In small wooden barrels stored sour milk, a bouza.

Were widespread in a product life from berest, a bass and a bark, and also wattled utensils.

For cooking Bashkirs used pig-iron coppers. In the XX century in the Bashkir families began to appear purchased metal, ceramic and glass wares, teapots, samovars.

Traditional drink the Bashkir was and there is a koumiss – drink from mare milk. Koumiss was widespread at the majority of nomads cattle-farmers of Central Asia. Received koumiss as a result of process of fermentation of mare milk by knocking down in special vessels. In the past koumiss kept in vessels from slotting skin of large pets. Late it began to be used and the wooden ware, but judges of koumiss still prefer the drink which is storing in leather vessels. As ferment the koumiss which has remained in a vessel, or katyk serves. Plentiful foam was considered as a sign of readiness of koumiss. The koumiss manufacturing techniques remain up to now invariable.

Ethnic cuisine


Many researchers, travelers noted that Bashkirs eat generally meat and dairy products. Of milk did cottage cheese (earemsek), cheese (korot), oil (May), sour cream (kaymak), drawn butter (to hapa May), dry cottage cheese of brown color (eazhegey), oil (by joint stock company May), drawn butter with a cherry (seaye May), sour milk (katyk), etc. From meat prepared such national dishes, as besbarmak (from fresh mutton) — kullama (from a horse-flesh, beef), for hurpa, hаlma. The meat dishes processed for storage are known under names kazy (horse sausage), kagyt (dried meat), kipkeap it (dried meat). Bashkirs are known in literature, historical sources as the people which were engaged in the past in a nomadic cattle breeding economy. However since the most ancient times to the Bashkir people such cereal cultures as millet, wheat, barley were known. Porridge from the millet, ground wheat was a ritual dish on the Carrion crows holiday porridge (The hag butkahy), on wedding ceremonies from wheat flour prepared chak-chak. In the national epos, fairy tales, legends such delicacy, as kurmas — roasted wheaten grains is often mentioned. The way of a baking of small flour flat cakes in ashes is considered very ancient. Primitive people used it. Very ancient dish known many Turkic people, is talkan for which preparation of grain kalyat, grind and mix with oil.