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Material and spiritual culture of ethnos

Material and spiritual culture of ethnos

·         Ukrainians, the name - Russ, rusichi.

In XVIII century the name Ukrainians (from a word kraine - i.e. the suburb or Ukraine), given by Russians was fixed. Called also Cossacks (Cossacks) — etymology from nomadic Cossacks (Kazakhs) whom borrowed a conduct of life - a military liberties (the Cossack has among many values and - "free, liberal". Besides, the military aristocracy consisted of Cossacks-kipchaks (slavyano-Turkic a conglomerate of Kievan Rus'). It is also widespread playful and familiar, sometimes scornful a crest (according to some scientists, from Turkic the cook - "blue, heavenly", meaning the cook the Turkman - "heavenly Turkic peoples".

Ukrainian — one of East Slavic languages, has three adverbs: а) the northern: left-bank marshy, right-bank marshy, Volynsk marshy dialects; б) the southwest: Volynsk and Podolsk, Galician-Bucovina, Carpathian, podnestrov dialects; в) the southeast: — podnepr, east Poltava dialects. The last adverb in the XVIII century was based on so-called old Ukrainian of book language. At a boundary of the XVIII-XIX centuries there was a modern Ukrainian (new Ukrainian) literary language. Procession of the old Slavic letter ("Cyrillics") created by educators Cyril and Methodius in the X-th century began with Ukraine.

Belief — the main population of Ukraine professes Christianity of orthodox sense, the part is in Catholic belief. In 988 g the Kiev prince Vladimir (Great) officially accepted Christianity and christened the people of Kievan Rus.

The main economic life of the Ukrainian immigrants in the XIX beginning of the XX century there was an agriculture, subsidiary branches - animal husbandry. The part of rural population was engaged in crafts and crafts - tanning and shoe, fur-coat, potter's, joiner's, cooperage, iconographic, winery, etc.

The traditional dwelling of Ukrainians, despite considerable migratory processes, in the most various regions of the world kept the ethnographic features up to the middle of the XX century. As a rule, it is characteristic for Ukraine low, oblong huts, with an earth or pise-walled floor, with a hipped roof hanging over walls. Walls were constructed from a subsidiary material: woods, framework, stones, adobe. The tradition steadily remained to cover with clay and to bleach walls. Internal planning ("West Russian" or "Ukrainian-Belarusian") remained: in the middle the big wind furnace (varist), on a diagonal from it a red or forward corner (caroused), on each side, along a wall - the strengthened wide benches (lavas).

The traditional clothes of Ukrainians represented a multilayered complex: trousers from a homespun cloth, a shirt, zone and breast clothes, outer clothing, a headdress, footwear, ornaments. Among Ukrainians still there are ethnographic features in an attire: derg (everyday being plowed clothes), plahta (festive, cut out from two panels of a bright checkered woolen fabric, with a rich ornament), спідниця (a skirt from a factory fabric), a kersetka (sleeveless jacket), etc. Women carried demountable ornaments — bracelets, earrings, rings, cervical and breast necklaces, a beads, suspension brackets with coins (a necklace, дукачі). On the head often white payments (намітка), tied over a hat (очіпка). Scarfs, various were everywhere widespread on color, the invoice, a way of a binding. Men went in wide wide trousers, late narrow trousers were borrowed Russian. Tunic shirts with cut on the breasts decorated with an ornamental embroidery were popular. From headdresses — a high lambskin cap (Kuchma), winter caps (треух, малахаі), a hat from felt and straw (бриль).

Traditional cuisine

Bread bake from sour dough in the form of round or oblong big хлебин (паляница, хлібина, бохан). Pies with a stuffing and flat cakes (перепічки, opішки, пампушки) are popular. From a flour prepare ancient dishes: квашa, лемішкa, соломахa. Foods from the dough, welded in boiled water are popular still: galushka, dumplings (with cottage cheese, a potato, a cherry), noodles (lokishna), затірка (abruptly mixed fresh dough pounded on small slices and cooked in water or milk). A house specialty of Ukrainians there is the Ukrainian borsch having many different ways of preparation. At a daily diet there are numerous dairy products. The ethnic cuisine is enriched at the expense of traditions in the places of residence. So, on Kuban Ukrainians do Adygea cheese, in Bashkiria and Kazakhstan - koumiss and ayran. Meat, sausages and the well-known Ukrainian fat are both daily, and festive products.

National customs and ceremonies


As well as at many people, at Ukrainians symbiosis of Christian ceremonies with ancient pagan customs is observed. For example, a Christmas-tide was accompanied by usually evening feasts, with spiritual conversations, magic actions, ritual foods. On the Christmas eve sang Christmas carols (playful songs of conjectural and mystical character), went "with a star", children "sowed" grains in houses of neighbors etc. On Shrovetide, as well as Russian, baked pancakes and dumplings, went for a drive on horse sledge, visited. For Easter drove round dances, arranged celebrations, cooked ceremonial food, consecrated in church Pasca (Easter cake), colored eggs, honey, sausages, a fried pig. For the Trinity decorated a hut and gate with branches. On Ivan Kupala established on the high coast the cut-down ceremonial tree, decorated with flowers (the madder - bathed), burned down fires, guessed etc. All these holidays are celebrated and today, though not in such scales, as in the past. Many modern holidays entered into life of Ukrainians. Ukrainians carefully store ancient poetic culture which originates in an all-Slavic and Old Russian era. The period of paganism was noted by a indivisibility of the person and the nature, a great number of gods. Acceptance of Christianity by Ancient Russia entailed familiarizing with new cultural, intellectual values. All huge layer called by Old Russian literature - from the first translated and compilation works to top of Russian poetry of "Tale of Igor's Campaign" - is a basis and the Ukrainian culture.