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Material and spiritual culture of ethnos

Material and spiritual culture of ethnos

·         RUSSIAN (self-name). This name was brought with themselves by Varangians (Rus-Scandinavian) of Rurik invited to reigning by Novgorod inhabitant. Ethnonym unites two national groups: people of Ancient or Kievan Rus and ethnos of Russia.

Traditional occupation of Russian is agriculture. Cultivation grain (a rye, wheat, millet, flax) was the main direction. Melon growing, truck farming and gardening in the south developed. The animal husbandry, generally the stall contents also took place. Russian held cattle, horses, sheep, and also pigs and birds (geese, a weft etc.). Hunting for a fur animal (a squirrel, a sable, a marten etc.), and also collecting cedar cones, gathering berries and mushrooms was developed. The considerable share in a traditional economy was made by fishery. Arts and crafts were developed. Were popular the tree and metal, clay and glass, a bone and a horn, a fabric and skin were subjects of art processing. The carving, a sculpture, a list, graphics, an art weaving, a heel-tap, an embroidery etc.

 Stamping from gold and silver, and also a wooden sculpture of the religious contents was popular. Production of painted ware was adjusted in many areas. Special popularity was received by works of the Novgorod masters (Khokhloma list), with a characteristic herbal ornament and golden-red-black scale on the varnished surface. In the Urals there were painted metal trays, with magnificent, bright bouquets and wreaths on the black varnished background. Products from precious metals were a subject the person of pride of masters: gold, silver etc.

The traditional Russian clothes differed a variety and differentiation on regions of residence. Influence of the small people of Russia is appreciable. At the same time there was some general style. Men wore the tunic and pattern shirts which have been let out over rather narrow trousers, with a belt. As outer clothing used caftans with the wedges, being plowed on the left side (sedmyags, homespun coats, etc.) . Merchants and prosperous peasants carried a kaftan under suits with collecting behind. Under suits together with a blows and the trousers filled in boots, was fashionable in the environment of the different rank intellectuals the end of the 19th eyelid. In the village often carried 's coat — a long dressing gown from self-made cloth. In the winter in a course there were sheepskin short fur coats and sheepskin coats, belted bright belts. Differentiation on northern and southern a suit was characteristic in particular for women's clothing. All-Russian the long shirt from a white canvas, with special inserts on shoulders with a collar in assembly was traditional. On the northern wore sundresses (long sleeveless jackets), various on color and breed. Married women carried a kokoshnik — the special headdress decorated with an embroidery, brocade, pearls. On weekdays the head was decorated by a small hat with outsets. Scarfs - various on color, a form and a matter were indispensable attribute. South Russian suit consisted of a long linen shirt and so-called skirts - a piece of a checkered woolen fabric. It was atop put on fuse - a type of an apron. Sometimes married women carried a difficult headdress - magpie, having form of horns. A rich variety ornaments differed: graceful stripes, patterns from beads and pearls, gold and silver products.

In a traditional cuisine of Russian flour products were the main food. Were baked big, round bread of sour dough, generally from a black rye flour. The most various types of fritters, pancakes, flat cakes were baked. Though was a subject of a special cult and honoring. From grain liquid soups cooked. In Priural it there was thick Russian cabbage soup from peeled barley, in the south - wheaten kulesh. At the end of the 19th century there was fig. It was everywhere widespread kutya- porridge from not crushed grains of wheat, the barley, filled with honey or honey water. From garden plants the cabbage - both in fresh, and is popular in a salty and fermented look. Potatoes are also popular: boiled, fried, baked etc. Potatoes and a pickle - the dish which substantially has become a symbol of Russian nationality. To it black bread, porridge and Russian cabbage soup are organically added. But at the same time there was a tradition of consumption of meat products - generally pork, beef, occasionally mutton. Horse-flesh in food wasn't used, fish was often used. Drinks were kvass from rye bread and beer. Sometimes prepared a mead and stewed fruit from dry fruit. Kissels and compotes are popular. Tea appeared in 19 century. It drank from special ware (then there were well-known Tula samovars), with sugar.

In Russia prior to the beginning of the 20th century the calendar ceremonialism which was expressed in mass celebrations and entertainments remained. First of all it was a Christmas-tide - Christmas and New Year's holidays. They were accompanied by playful, cheerful ceremonies. From them carol-singing - a wellbeing wish, with rhymes and a recitative is most known. Carolers presented with sweets and gifts. Fortune-telling was widespread at this time - girls tried to learn a name of the promised etc. On streets went husband, buffoons, conjurers, it is frequent with a bear on a chain. The cycle came to the end with a baptism (an affusion the holy water, some bathed in an ice-hole) and religious procession. Big religious processions came true on significant dates, in connection with historical events. Shrovetide - in many respects kept the pagan elements symbolizing fertility was a spring holiday. Easter - with Easter cakes, colored eggs, national entertainments was the following large holiday. Transition from spring by summer was marked by the Trinity, girls brought branches of trees and wreaths from flowers; youth celebrations with kindling of fires, songs, douche by water etc. were arranged. Fairs were dated for many holidays.


Sources of spiritual culture leave in depths of oral poetic creativity. The most ancient and popular genre of this culture are songs. They had a considerable variety, both on style, and on subject: Christmas carols, ovesen or tausen, grapes, stoneflies and many other. Also the most ancient is the genre of the Russian national fairy tale.