КГУ "Карагандинская областная юношеская библиотека имени Жайыка Бектурова"

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Karaganda region - industrial center of the Kazakh SSR (1946-1990)

Karaganda region - industrial center of the Kazakh SSR (1946-1990)

After Great Patriotic War end in Kazakhstan there was a problem of further development of a national economy. The industry of Kazakhstan at the expense of the evacuated enterprises for years of the Great Patriotic War considerably surpassed pre-war level. In 1946 in Kazakhstan transition of a national economy to peace rails was complete. The coal industry, agricultural industry developed in this period in the republic. The extent of branch lines increased.

The post-war Karaganda area – was a part of the general and uniform during this period political-economical system. Here, as a whole, the same problems were solved, the same methods and mechanisms, as on all Soviet country and, in particular, across all Kazakhstan were put forward.

Detailed consideration of an economic development of the region demands special works and researches on this subject.

Epicenters of nuclear and thermonuclear explosions were near places where people went in for agricultural industry (preparation of forages, a cattle pasture). Therefore the Karkaralinsky area, being adjacent to the Semipalatinsk proving ground, became one of the most unfortunate on indicators of a state of health of the population, especially among children's. So infantile mortality to the middle of the 1980th. Made 43,1 on 1000 been born, at the regional average — 24,0 and on the village — 31,1. In structure diseases of respiratory organs, the perinatal reasons, infectious diseases prevailed. Despite a long silence, and after attempt of the authorities and military to declare range influence harmless to population and environment health, negative ecological, social and demographic, genetic and other consequences of functioning of the Semipalatinsk nuclear range appeared very considerable. In Kazakhstan, as well as in the USSR as a whole, this decade is accompanied by a number of repressive measures for the relation both to party and Soviet workers, and in relation to the intellectuals. In the territory of Karaganda 1950 the whole system of correctional facilities — GULAG camps still functioned. In largest of them — Karlag (Dolink's center settlement) in the conclusion was in different years to 1,5 million people. During 1948-1952 in the territory of Kazakhstan 4 special camps — in the Karaganda area (No. 4 "Ministry of Internal Affairs steppe camp", "Sandy" camp No. 8 and "Lugovoy" camp No. 9) were organized.

Only for years of the 4th five-years period (1946-1950) 17 powerful mines were reconstructed and put in operation, and to the 5th five-years period (1951-1955) development of coal fields in Saran, Tenteka, Sherubaynura, Shakhan began. The mechanic of mine No. 31 S. Makarov with support of the research and design organizations of Moscow in 1944 created the coal combine for powerful layers, in 1948 — the bulk car; the chief of mine No. 31 A.V. Egorov designed an uglenavalochny plow, effective on low-power firm layers. These and other cars created in Karaganda, played a known role in ensuring technical progress in the coal industry of the country. The founder of the coal combine to S. Makarov, A.Egorov and P. Denisov awarded the State award USSR (1948) . In 1948 on the eve of a professional holiday of Day of miners of 10 miners for the first time celebrated in Karaganda ranks of the Hero of Socialist work were awarded. Among them were Zh.Abdrakhmanov, M.A.Aytkulov, P.F.Akulov, B. Nurmaganbetov, D.I.Obukhov, G. Hayrullin, etc. In 1950-1955 coal mining in the pool восросла for 62 %, at the general growth about the country for 49,8 %. During this period 9 mines and coal mine in the general capacity of 24 million t year and 4 large concentrating factories — 3,757 million t were placed in operation. coal in a year. The important place in development of the chemical industry belongs to the Karaganda plant of synthetic rubber, in 1943 in operation the first karbidny furnace here was put. The New and Karaganda machine building plant which is letting out to 100 names of various cars and mechanisms became a leader of mechanical engineering. In 1958 on the basis of Balkhash copper-smelting plant and attached to it plant of processing color metafishing, Kounrad and Gulshat lead-zinc mines was educated the Balkhash mining and metallurgical combine which has become one of the largest enterprises of area. Same 1958 the Zhezkazgan mining and metallurgical combine was educated, it included all industrial enterprises of non-ferrous metallurgy of an industrial zone: copper-smelting plant, 11 mines, 4 mines, 3 concentrating factories and some more complexes. The Zhezkazgan mining and metallurgical combine became a leader of non-ferrous metallurgy of the USSR. In 1967 at the World Fair of non-ferrous metals in London Balkhash copper was recognized as the best in the world — 99,99 % of purity of copper.

In 1948 in Karaganda for the first time celebrated a professional holiday Day of the miner. 10 best miners were awarded ranks of the Hero of Socialist work: Tusup Kuzembayev, Saken Shomanov, Zhakseit Abdrakhmanov, Moustapha Aytkulov, Peter Akulov, Bashir Nurmagambetov, Dmitry Obukhov, Galiolla Hayrulliy, etc.

Successfully the agricultural industry developed in post-war years. Development of virgin lands became its important stage. By 1958 on a virgin soil 1 232 million thousands hectares was mastered and organized 16 large new state farms. Expansion of cultivated areas of grain crops allowed area to collect over 60 million poods of bread. For these successes the area was awarded the order Lenin.

In a seventh (1959-1965) among the largest buildings — the Karaganda steel works (construction is begun in 1950, in 1960 the first cast iron is received) and the Irtysh-Karaganda channel (construction is begun in 1962 and it is complete in 1974, its extent of 458 km), it is mastered production of 52 new types of an industrial output, is built 65 large enterprises and objects, the Karaganda power supply system KARHPP-1 became which basis is created, the plant of the sanitary-engineering equipment in Karaganda and asbestotsementny products in Aktau entered into a system. In 1959 the Michael mine was put in operation, later T.Kuzembayev's name is appropriated to it.

Further development was received by transport. If extent of the railways in the Karaganda area in 1940 made 588 km, to 1953 with end of new lines (Akmolinsk-Kartaly-1939-43 of, Akmolinsk-Pavlodar-1946-53, Moyynty-Choo-1946-53) – 2952 km. If till 1953 in area there were no roads with a firm covering, in нач. the 1980th the extent of highways made 4684 km.

One of tragic pages in the history of area are events in Temirtau in 1959. The construction of the Karaganda steel works (in Temirtau) was declared by all-Union youth building. In 1959 more than 25 thousand people worked at construction Karmeta. Unresolved social problems (shortage of places in hostels — many builders lived in tents, lack of necessary seats in dining rooms, a lack of hospital beds, systematic interruptions in bread, drinking water, etc.) and absolute ignoring by party and Soviet functionaries of these problems caused emergence in this region of the center of social tension. From August 1 to August 3, 1959 in Temirtau the spontaneous excitements which have led to break-in of shops, militias, etc. flashed. Excitements were suppressed by means of power structures, including, armies. Among victims there were innocent, casual people.

In the second half of the 1960th heads of the country made an attempt carrying out economic transformations within existing sociopolitical system.

It is necessary to note that, despite available essential difficulties and shortcomings, against last decade in 1960 - x situation obviously improved. In February, 1956 in Moscow passed the XX congress of CPSU the question of overcoming of a cult of personality of Stalin was which key question. Noting courage and N. S. Khrushchev courage and his associates who have found forces for fight against a cult of I.V.Stalin, it is necessary to emphasize that the outlined demolition of authoritative system wasn't finished to end. Began to choke soon and political dissent. In the USSR the industrial policy was defined by subjective and strong-willed decisions of the country leaders which continued to believe that the outcome of competition will determine by dynamics of basic branches (metallurgy, coal mining and iron ore etc.).

"Communism buildings" walked about the country which "demanded even more ore, coal, steel, cast iron etc.". In Kazakhstan only to 1960 it was constructed and installed 83 large industrial enterprises. At this time in the republic the fuel and energy base has development. In the Karaganda coal basin more than ten large mines and concentrating factories was installed. By 1955 over 2 million t. coal (coal mining was carried out in the open way) gave Ekibastuz. The same years operation of Ust-Kamenogorsk hydroelectric power station, thermal power plants in Zhezkazgan and Zhambul began. Capacities Karaganda, Shymkent and other combined heat and power plants increased.

Development of the electric power increased in the republic in two with superfluous time, including hydraulic power - five times. By 1960 the total amount of an industrial output made in relation to 1940 of 732 %. This year the operating Irtysh chemical steel works on which for the first time in the country industrial production of the whole complex of rare-earth elements and rare metals was adjusted entered into a system. In 1957 began production shipment the Zhezkazgansky combine largest in the country. The Karaganda steel works began to work with a full manufacturing lead time.

Machine operators had a low labor productivity. Average development on one conditional tractor in 1953 made 599 hectares at the plan in 652 hectares of a soft plowed land. From 130 collective farms of the Karaganda area served by MTS, only in 22 works were observed in the terms established by contracts. As a whole MTS of area underfulfilled the plan of tractor works for 94 thousand, and lifting ploughland - on 82 thousand hectares.

Negatively affected development state-farm, as well as collective-farm, productions wrong, at the heart of the vicious, central planning. Such planning held down an initiative of state-farm workers and generated in them dependant moods instead of being large producers and the main directors of grain of the state, many state farms turned into the consumers of grain living at the expense of the state resources.

The major incentive in work of collective farms was change of procuring and purchase prices of agricultural products. Huge economic value of this policy of the prices consisted in sharp increase of profitability of collective farms from production realization as obligatory deliveries and the state purchases.

In 1958 the industrial Karaganda area turned from consuming in making, giving a lot of commodity bread.

As a whole, the periodization of post-war state-farm construction in the republic was considered in organic communication with those shifts in development of productive forces and a condition of agricultural production.

The first stage - regenerative (1946-1953) state farms overcome serious consequences of war and reach high level of pre-war production on average values counting on one economy. Is updated and becomes stronger them financially - technical base.

The second stage - virgin, covers years of mass development of virgin lands (1954-1958). Its distinctive feature the organization of a wide network of state farms on new lands. By the stage end state farms of the republic becomes leading producers of gross and commodity grain, and Kazakhstan turns into one of the main granaries of the country.

The third stage on time coincides with the seven-year development plan of a national economy of the USSR (1959-1965). It is characterized by basic socially economic changes in an aul and the village, mass organization of state farms on the basis of collective farms, transformation of the state form of a socialist property - state farms in a dominating form of the organization of agricultural production and development of productive forces of agricultural industry of the Kazakh republic. These years important transformations in agricultural industry were carried out.

In the Karaganda area it was the share of one worker 672, and taking into account lands of long-term using - 764 hectares.

In days of the 8th five-years period of Temirtau it was awarded the order the Labour Red Banner, Lenin's award — staff of mine of. I.A.Kostenko, an award of the Labour Red Banner — staff of mine of Lenin, trust "Kaz metallurgist" and the Karaganda confectionery. In the Central Kazakhstan about 100 large industrial enterprises including a slyabing 1150, a camp of hot hire 1700, the 5th and the 6th koksovy the battery, oxygen converter a complex on Karmetkombinat were put into operation, Tentek-vertical mine, was constructed 7 specialized poultry-farming factories and state farms on an industrial basis, 18 vegetable and dairy, 12 dairy, 9 meat and 4 breeding state farms on cultivation of highly productive breeds of sheep — Kazakh white-headed and edilbay. The government highly appreciated work of workers of agricultural industry of area: more than one thousand people were awarded by awards and medals of the USSR, the high rank of the Hero of Socialist work was appropriated to milkmaids E.Ortman and V. Russa.

On mines of Karaganda the world were repeatedly established. All-Union, republican records of coal mining.

1957. The mine No. 31 brigade in 31 working days the Donbass combine extracted 27 thousand tons of coal, the world record is established.

1961. Mine No. 31. V. Velichkin's brigade extracted the World record for a month of 48415 tons.

1966. Mine No. 122. L.Dandsberg's brigade the combine «Karaganda 7-15» passed in 31 working days of 2523 running meters ventilating штрека the World record.

1965. Mine No. 33/34. N. Gilts's brigade the Donbass-2К combine extracted 58200 tons. All-Union record.

1969. The mine No. 33/34, F.Levin's site No. 1 the GK-52 combine for the working day extracted 81133 tons of coal. All-Union record.

1970. In the pool 26 mines and 4 concentrating factories operated. For the reached successes in 1976 association "Karaganda coal" was awarded the order October revolution.

In December, 1977 in the pool record labor productivity in branch - 100 tons a month on the worker on fuel production, on the industry of construction materials of the cities of Karaganda, by Temirtau, Saran, Abay, Shakhtinsk, Aktau, Zhezkazgan and the Balkhash industrial complex of non-ferrous metallurgy, specialized generally on production and processing of copper ores and production of the draft and refined copper, color hire, and also on release of manganese, lead, zinc other polymetallic concentrates was reached. This industrial hub of oxватывал mines and mines of concentrating factory, medeplavilny plants of the enterprise chemical, food and other industries of the cities of Zhezkazgan. Balkhash, Satpayev, Karazhala, Zhayrem, Zhezda. Kounrad, Sayaka, Akchatau.

1978. In the pool the milliard ton of coal (was extracted from the moment of creation of the Karaganda coal basin). In life of miner's Karaganda this event was an event of great historical importance.

The central Kazakhstan on level of industrial development wins first place among republic regions. In its territory two large industrial hubs were created: Karaganda - the Temirtausky coal and metallurgical complex with the numerous industrial enterprises of power industry, the machine-building, metal-working, chemical, light, food industry.

These years the material base and a network of cultural and educational establishments considerably became stronger. Were constructed and handed over recreation center operation in areas the centers of Nura, Egindybulak areas in Shakhtinsk in Topar and Dolinka. In the mid-seventies more than 30 large industrial facilities, among which such giants of the industry as a camp of cold rolling of a leaf, Karmetkombinat's aglodomenny complex, the New and Karaganda cement works, plant rubber - technical products in Saran, plant of synthetic detergents in Shakhtinsk, the 1st turn of the canal Irtysh-Karaganda, the Volynsk industrial complex on fattening 108 thousand pigs a year are constructed. The ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy continued to develop. For introduction of new dobychny complexes and high operational performance the Zhezkazgan mining and metallurgical combine was awarded the order Lenin.

In December 1979 the Tentekskaya mine, in December 1980 — the Central concentrating factory "East" with design capacity of 6 million t was placed in operation coal processings in a year. Reconstruction of mines of Kostenko, "Sherubaynura", of the 50 anniversary October revolutions was finished, etc. Big scientific and technical achievement of metallurgists was industrial development of processing of iron ore raw materials of Lisakovsk (The state award USSR, 1984).


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