КГУ "Карагандинская областная юношеская библиотека имени Жайыка Бектурова"

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Karaganda region in days of the Great Patriotic War

Karaganda region in days of the Great Patriotic War

They fought for the Homeland

The history of mankind didn't know the wars equal to the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 on the scales.

Example of true patriotism was mass statements of workers of area for the voluntary introduction in ranks of defenders of the Homeland. From the beginning of war of one thousand inhabitants of Karaganda put in statements in military registration and enlistment offices with a request to send them to ranks of Red Army. By the end of 1941 more than 25 thousand statements were submitted to military registration and enlistment offices of area, 10 thousand from them were from women.

In total for years of war the Karaganda area sent about 45000 people on the front. Inhabitants showed unprecedented courage, courage, mass heroism in fight for honor, freedom and independence of the Homeland. They showed heroism miracles in fight for Moscow and Leningrad, to death stood at walls of Stalingrad, took part in liberation of Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and Baltic.

In Central Kazakhstan were formed 72 Krasnograd Guards Red Banner Rifle Division, 387th Infantry Division Thu, 310th Infantry Novgorod Order of Lenin Red Banner Division.

The 72nd shooting division participated in the Battle of Stalingrad, battle on the Kursk arch, released Moldova, Romania, Hungary, Austria and finished war near Prague.

387th Rifle Division defended Tula, Moscow, acted on Stalingrad, fought its way up to the Crimean isthmus stormed the fortified Perekop, participated in the liberation of Sevastopol, Bucharest.

The 310th division participated in fights near Leningrad, near Tikhvin, on the Volkhov front, participated in break of blockade of Leningrad, released Novgorod and the southern regions of Karelia. Participated in East Pomeranian and Berlin operations. From the Karaganda inhabitant who have risen in a system of defenders of the general Homeland, 18 people who were born, living and working in area, ranks of the Hero of the Soviet Union, including N. Abdirov, M. Mamrayev and others were awarded.

Actively Karaganda inhabitants and participated in guerrilla movement. They battled in a guerrilla brigade «For the Soviet Belarus», in a brigade of the name Frunze and others.

6587 inhabitants were awarded by awards and medals for courage and heroism on Great Patriotic War fronts.

In the back as at the front

In front watch of one of the largest federal republics, the major military-industrial base which has become in military tests in the back, the huge role was allocated for industrial heart of Kazakhstan - the Karaganda area.

In days of war Karaganda became one of the main coal bases of the country. From Donbass to Karaganda over 10 thousand skilled workers and experts were evacuated. In 1941 to Karaganda the Voroshilovgrad plant of coal mechanical engineering was evacuated of. A.Ya.Parkhomenko, on its base was constructed plant of the mountain equipment which production went on mines and mines of the Karaganda area, coal basins of Siberia and the Far East. In 1942 construction of the New and Karaganda plant of the mining equipment and machine building plant began, the concentrating factory is reconstructed. In 1941 3 new mines (total capacity of 550 thousand t of coal in a year), in 1942 — 12 mines (2500 thousand t of coal a year) and 2 coal mines came into service. In 1942 28 new horizons (in 4 times more than in 1942) are prepared and put in operation and 6 mines. In the spring of 1944 construction of powerful coal mine by productivity to 1,5 million tons of coal a year was finished. Production of being coked Karaganda coals by the end of war increased in 2,3 times, 39 mines operated; in lavas and faces 43 thousand people (including 35 thousand came in days of war) worked.

In the conditions of a war time workers of our area lived and worked under the motto: «All for the front! In total for the Victory! » In days of war Karaganda became one of the main coal bases of the country. The fathers who have left on the front, husbands, brothers replaced at machines, in mine faces, at hospital beds, on field camps of the woman.

In the first day of war on mines, the industrial enterprises, establishments of Karaganda passed meetings of workers and employees. Speaking at meeting, the chief of the № 44/45 mine, the oldest miner T.Kuzembayev told: «Each of us should work accurately at the post and give coal more than gave earlier. If it is required, we are ready to take any minute in hands the weapon and to go on the enemy». As well as all Soviet people, workers of Karaganda expressed readiness to defend honor, freedom and independence of the general Homeland, to make everything for a victory. «The work of three! Coal - too the weapon. In work - as in fight!» - slogans of inhabitants were such. Places of the miners called in ranks of defenders of the general Homeland, in lavas fathers, wives, sons and daughters occupied them. Pensioners came back to faces, to work at mines is accelerated the youth and women was trained.

Among the first 37 thousand short fur coats, jackets, wide trousers, 24 thousand felt boots, 10543 units of underwear and about 100 thousand caps, mittens, socks were made. In a month of collecting the food for fighters of the Leningrad front and the city on Neva (May-June, 1942) 20 cars with the food were collected and sent: In 1944 10 more cars with the food and gifts were sent. In 1942-43 on the front cunningly 94 cars with gifts.

At each enterprise, in the organizations of area self-denying work on implementation of front orders was developed. On the eve of the Great Patriotic War the Balkhash copper-smelting plant became operational. In days of war it placed a rolling shop of Kolchug’s plant of color hire on the floor spaces. It was begun development of molybdenum ore. By the war end the industry of Balkhash made a third of the draft copper melted in the country. The industry of Zhezkazgan mastered production of paper, explosive, liquid glass, carbide, release of difficult spare parts and the equipment. In 3 times ore production increased. On Zhezkazgan manganese mine for years of war production of raw materials surpassed production of a number of the countries of Europe together taken. In December, 1944 the system of operating plants was entered by the Kazakh steel works in the settlement of Samarkand (nowadays Temirtau) which made the first melting of steel in Kazakhstan.

For 1942-44 trusts of the Karaganda coal basin of 6 times won passing Red Banners of state credit obligations and repeatedly the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, CP Central Committee Kazakhstan.

In area cultivated areas at the expense of being empty lands extended (on 32 %), increased: productivity — for 70 %, gross collecting grain — for 124 %, a livestock of agricultural animals — for 79,6 %. Following the results of development of animal husbandry and production of super planned grain the area and the Osakarov area were awarded by a passing Red Banner of state committee of defense.

Big and laborious work was carried out on employment of the evacuated population, definition of children to kindergartens and schools, to assistance to families of veterans and the lost soldiers, the organization of patronage of hospitals. For placement of the evacuated population in Karaganda 272 thousand m ² living space (mainly, barracks) and 7300 individual houses are constructed.

The maximum and all-round help was rendered to the released Donbass in the fastest restoration of mines. So, in 1943 and winter of 1944 17 cars with the mining equipment, equipment and the food were sent, workers and experts of leading professions are recalled. Workers of the Karaganda area repeatedly listed the one-day earnings in fund of restoration of Stalingrad, Kharkov and other cleared regions. At the initiative of workers of mine of Kirov on all republic fund raising on orphanage construction in Donbass was organized. In our area 1 367 million thousand rubles was collected. In Chistyakov (Thorez) is constructed orphanage on 150 places, bearing and until now a name of patriotic female of Karaganda. This memory of military years - a symbol of a brotherhood and friendship of miners of Karaganda and Donbass, workers of Kazakhstan and Ukraine.

Subject of protection of the Homeland in literature and the art filled with the emancipating contents, causing patriotic inflow of feelings and strengthening belief in the Victory - were the main in spiritual life of inhabitants of Karaganda. Concert brigades on service of hospitals, recruiting stations, field camps and mines worked. Together with Kazakhstan citizens evacuated staff of the Kiev dramatic theater of a name of Lesya Ukrainian and the Moscow chamber theater participated in cultural life of Karaganda.

From July 13 to August 14, 1943 in Karaganda took place akins aitys in which Doskey Alimbayev, Shashubay Koshkarbayev, Kayyp Aynabekov and other national singers known to all republic and composers took part. Aitys played a huge role mobilization of workers on labor heroism in the back. In 1943-1945 of competition of national singers of Sara Arch took place also in Balkhash, Zhezkazgan, Kounrad, in many regional centers. The spiritual shape of defenders of the Homeland is characterized by publicistic articles of our fellow countryman, Baubek Bulkyshev's who has created a number of bright articles war correspondent «The letter to the son of the East», «About life and death» which were published in 1942-1943 on "Komsomol’s Truth" pages. The K.Amanzholov’s poem «Story of the poet’s death» which N. Tikhonov called by "a pearl of the Kazakh poetry», is one of the bright poems created by the Kazakh literature in days of war.

The works created by our known fellow countrymen, were included into number of the works which have made a spiritual arsenal of the battling people. So, melodies of works Tattimbet were used in E.Brusilovskiy's symphonies of "Sara Arch" and V. Velikanov «The Kazakh symphony».


For self-denying work in days of war and for successes in socialist construction Karaganda in 1984 is awarded the order the Labour Red Banner.