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Establishment of the Soviet power in Central Kazakhstan

Establishment of the Soviet power in Central Kazakhstan

Fight for establishment and a victory of the Soviet power in Kazakhstan was an indissoluble component of uniform revolutionary process in Russia. It was caused by a community of preconditions of the revolution, become complicated a colonial policy of the Russian Empire and results of revolt of 1916.

Establishment of the Soviet power in various areas of Kazakhstan depended on a ratio of class forces in this or that area and from as far as it was close located to large industrial centers of the Urals and Siberia, the railway; from unity of local workers and durability of their communications with semi-proletarian mass of the village, aul and etc.

Process of establishment of the new power in Kazakhstan began with the end of October, 1917 and proceeded till March, 1918. In the territory of Semipalatinsk area, especially in Cossack villages, counterrevolution had numerous military shots. Besides, many officers of imperial army, ardent defenders of an old system here ran. Therefore fight for establishment of the new power at edge was tightened. White Guards showed strong resistance. In the night of 15 on 16 on February (3) groups of Red guard grasped railway station, mail, telegraph, the State bank, pier both other major establishments and the enterprises. 17 left on February (4), 1918 the first number of "News" of Semipalatinsk Council of workers and soldier's deputies with the appeal: « Citizens of Semipalatinsk area! Executing will of the working revolutionary people, Council of workers and soldier's deputies since this day took up all power on management of the city and the area which was a part of the Russian Soviet Federal republic».

Mines in Karaganda, as well as at other enterprises of joint stock company, workers established the Soviet power with the direct help of representatives Omsk regional and Akmola district Councils by the beginning of 1918. Active participation in strengthening of the power and adjustment of new life was accepted D.A.Prokopenko, S. Raymbekov, T.Bekov, Z.Chagirov, by the X-th. Abdykalykov, K.Zhumanov, Z.Syzdykov, D. Arapov, G. Bazilevich, A.Spirin, V. Denisov, I.Stryukov, N. Bloshitsin and representatives of the intellectuals N. Nurmakov, A.Ayaganov, A.Chingisov and. other. With their personal participation Council of working deputies of the spassky enterprises supported a continuous communication with Councils of Omsk, Akmolinsk and other cities. In 1918 in the Karkaraly district of the Karaganda area the power of Councils was established. Was bodies of legislative and executive power are created. Into their functions entered — fight against counterrevolution, creation in regions of new machinery of government, implementation of actions for creation of socialist culture.

On March 3 the News newspaper reported: «Councils of workers and soldier's deputies received from Karkaraly the telegram of the following contents:« Today the Kirghiz committee of Council of workers and soldier's deputies after serious discussion, the proposal of the Kirghiz proletariat decided to recognize the Soviet power of National Commissioners and to form the Soviet power in the district».

A victory of the Soviet power in the district officially it was declared on March 8, 1918.Those significant event preceded persistent fight of Karkaraly inhabitant.

At the head of masses there were Bolsheviks - veterans Gerasim Bazilevich, Andrey Spirin, Valentin Denisov, Ivan Stryukov, Nikolay Bloshchitsyn, revolutionary intellectuals - teachers of local two-year Russian-Kirghiz school N. Nurmakov, A.Ayaganov, A.Chingisov and others. Bolsheviks in secret developed the plan of capture of the power in the city, carried out propaganda among soldiers of local team. As a result their considerable part in days of a capture of the power acted as Bolsheviks on the party of the risen. In the house of the father Nikolay Bloshchitsyn - Anton Grigoryevich who stood near on the very brink of the wood city, on February 10, 1918, veterans at night gathered. They discussed the plan of action. By this plan veterans and to it sympathizing locals (mainly youth) were divided into two groups. One led by I.Stryukovym, N. Bloshchitsyn on the night of March 8, 1918 arrested in the Tysyatsky ‘s house the district administration, including the SR commissioner Ulyanovsk. Second group B. Denisov grasped local team. It was the next day declared establishment of the Soviet power in Karkaraly. District Board of Deputies as his members were elected was right there organized: previously. So on February 14, 1918 from Cossacks of the Karkaraly village as delegates «for participation in the organization of the Soviet power in Karkaraly» were chosen: A.G.Kazantsev and N. M. Babin, candidates of I.V to them. Deyev and N.A.Bloshitsyn. Into the first Coundep's structure entered also N. Nurmakov, A.Chingisov, G. Bazilevich, A.Spirin, etc. I.Z.Chervev was elected district Board of Deputies chairman. Subsequently on this post was also Nygmet Nurmakov.

In March the executive committee of Karkaraly district Council as a part of six people (on two representatives is elected from soldiers, peasants and the Kazakh population) representing the higher executive authority in the district also.

On April 3, 1918 in the Karkaraly district abolished old judicial authorities and elected revolutionary tribunal. In the first half of 1918 according to incomplete data, in 60-70 % all parish of the Karkaraly district already there were aul and parish Councils. In settlements with the mixed Russian-Kazakh population the incorporated village councils were created.

The big place in activity of Councils of Steppes in consolidation of the Soviet power was occupied by work of the first groups of Red guard and Red Army. The same groups as it was noted above, were organized in Karkaraly and before October revolution and played an important role in its victory. But more often at formation of Red guard separate local Councils of Kazakhstan committed mistakes, breaking a class principle of reception of fighters in its groups that treats and Karkaraly Council. As a result representatives of a top of the Cossacks, militiamen of Provisional government got into some parts of Red guard, etc. So, Karkaraly district Council without discrimination accepted all wishing owing to what the Karkaraly group of Red guard appeared in the majority the of unreliable elements which, having communication by a top of other Cossack villages, prepared revolution in June, 1918. As a result Board of Deputies fell, and his members were arrested and sent in Semipalatinsk prison. Since June 11 Semipalatinsk too was in hands of interventionists and White Guards.

From the beginning of civil war and military intervention it became clear that the voluntary principle of formation of Red Army couldn't provide defense of the Soviet republic. Therefore on May 29, 1918 ARCEC adopted the decree about introduction in the country of a general obligatory compulsory military service. Councils everywhere passed from voluntary to a general obligatory compulsory military service of workers at acquisition of Red Army. This situation didn't extend on labor masses of indigenous people. But regional authorities supported an initiative of the advanced representatives of the Kazakh workers who were voluntary joining the ranks of Red Army. Councils and military commissariats developed work on involvement in Red Army of workers of indigenous people: Kazakhs, Kirghiz, Uzbeks and representatives of other nationalities. At formation of Red Army in the region it was necessary to overcome many difficulties, there was no weapon, equipment’s, ammunition, skilled proletarian commanders and political workers a little. Party and Soviet bodies sent on command posts of the best representatives. In the autumn of 1919 Kolchak armed forces on East part of Kazakhstan weren't crushed yet up to the end, foreign states continued to assist the weapon, ammunition and equipment. Parts of Red Army after thorough training moved in the direction of Semipalatinsk where on December 1st in the city the Soviet power was restored. In such developed situation, created to a voluntary basis, the 65th Kazakh regiment under A.Radchenko's command on December 12, 1919 expelled Kolchak from Karkaraly. On January 8, 1920 the Karkaraly district revolutionary committee was organized, A.Radchenko was elected the chairman.

Parts of Red Army met universal support from the population which was injured a White Guard mode. So in the message from Karkaraly, published on January 16, 1920 the Semipalatinsk newspaper «Steppe truth», it was told: «The Kirghiz population spitefully looks at running Kolchak, attacks them, engages, takes prisoner, delivering to local authorities».

The revolutionary committee of the district created from representatives of local Councils and the organizations adjoining them played an important role in order establishment, suppression of mutinies. They created necessary conditions for transfer of all functions of the government to hands of elected bodies in the person of Councils. Revolutionary committee in contact by local Councils carried out a lot of work on preparation and convocation of district and regional congresses of Councils to which creation of public authorities on the basis of association of Councils of working, soldier's and country deputies was assigned.

Kakaraly inhabitants began the active involvement for the sake of consolidation of the Soviet power in the district. In July, 1920 I-Karkaraly district congress of Councils took place. On July 20 participants of this congress sent the Greeting to the chairman of ARCEC M.I.Kalinin. In "Greeting", in particular, it was told: «I-Karkaraly congress of Councils hotly welcomes the All-Russia head and declares that Kirghiz of the far suburb, know, who bears them full liberation and freedom to national culture, and all forces will put on strengthening and protection of the Soviet power».

Sharp-sightedly Karkaraly inhabitants and watched work of the first Universal Kazakhstan congress of Councils which proclaimed formation of the Kirghiz (Kazakh) ASSR.

On October 20, 1920 to the first  Universal Kazakhstan congress of Councils the greeting on behalf of the intellectuals of the Karkaraly district arrived. The same days passed the II Karkaraly district and city congress of councils.

Emergence of the first Komsomol cells belongs to this time in Karkaraly also. The first such youth cell appeared in January, 1920. In the middle of the same year in Karkaraly the first district conference of Komsomol members took place. Karkaraly native Garif Musin at the end of 1920 is elected the secretary of district committee of Komsomol.

To create Komsomol cells in auls and villages of the district messengers of the large centers of Kazakhstan helped. At the end of 1920 wide propaganda among the Kazakh youth was developed by traveling instructor Kiroffice of the Central Committee of RCUYS Mirispek Tulepov from Orenburg. Semipalatinsk to Komsomol Sponges «for permanent job among youth and Komsomol members» sends to the district teacher Nina Ivanova. Fruitfully worked on this field and the Pavlodar communist - the propagandist, the instructor of district party committee Efimy Malakhov.

The Karkaraly district after establishment of the Soviet power at edge actively joins in political life not only Kazakhstan, but also all country, taking active part in all (main) actions of the Soviet power. In moods of inhabitants there was a deep change, sowing committees which were engaged in distribution of seeds and agricultural stock were everywhere created, assisted farm laborers and poor people, families of Red Army men, disabled veterans. In the spring of 1921 crops in the district increased.

The party organizations of the remote centers, including Karkaraly grew several times: however they continued to remain small. Therefore, RKP Central Committee constantly (would) supervise activity of the party organizations Karkaraly, etc. districts with a view of deeper studying of features of work in national areas.

However as a whole across Kazakhstan situation was hard, peasants didn't have enough seeds, stock and draft cattle. It became complicated also that in the summer of 1921 the republic, as well as the Volga region, comprehended terrible elemental disaster - a severe drought, the crop in some areas almost entirely was lost, there was no forage for cattle, the mass case began. The extent of disaster was huge, especially heavy there were drought consequences for nomadic areas. Among the population hunger began. During this period especially wide popularity was won by a red caravan of KAZCEC. The Council of a red caravan headed by A.T.Zhangildin, included representatives of working committee party and Komsomol of all Commissariat. The red caravan did a huge way - more than four thousand kilometers - from Orenburg to Semipalatinsk. Having passed through deep Kazakh steppes, it visited and the Karkaraly district.

And during this period enemies of the Soviet power weren't appeased. Already 1920 in the summer in some areas of Kazakhstan occurred White Guard kulak mutinies. At the beginning of 1921 counterrevolutionary White Guard kulak gangs went on open armed revolt against the Soviet power. The many thousands group created in the territory of the Kustanay district by the imperial general by Clean, receding under blows of parts of Red Army on the territories of the Central Kazakhstan, embittered by failure, brutally finished with communists and non-party activists. The groups of this gang headed by colonel Tokarev, officers Novikov and Mogilevtsev, having suffered strong defeat near Petropavlovsk receded on a path to the east.

On April 6, 1921 the White Guard gang suddenly rushed in Karkaraly. The armed groups of a gang surrounded people's house where at this time passed asset meeting.

Despite unexpected attack of White Guards, communists showed resistant resistance. Those who had an individual weapon were shot up to the end, having left for itself the last bullet. So arrived the secretary of the I.G district committee. Malyshkin, chairman of revolution committee  I.F.Lyapin, head of department of education M.H.Khrustalyov, chief of district REC A.H. Chigovich and many other.

Executioners felt sorry for nobody. They killed both old men, and children. Life of many patriots broke too early. Among them, first of all, before us there is as the outstanding personality the first leader of karkaraly Komsomol Garif Musin. Already, being the arrested, it looking death in a face, cared first of all of keeping in live companions, will of a case not appeared in that day in the city. It literally in the face of furious bandits burned out and swallowed the list of the colleagues, saved their lives. We remember today also a feat of brave 16-year-old member of the Komsomol Nina Ivanova. Bandits cut off hands at Ivanova. It was interrogated by the leader of a gang Tokarev. On a breast, on a forehead of the girl they cut out asterisks. But Nina Ivanova showed and here firmness and courage examples. After mockeries and tortures, it was executed. By bandits were killed 78 communists and non-party activists, women and old men were stirred brutally up, the peace population is plundered. Bandits left the plundered city only on April 12.

Message about a tragic event excited all to the district, it reached and Red Army groups. A fighting task - to cut a way to a gang and to crush it received the 435th cavalry regiment of a name of Stepan Razin. Communist K.K.Galeto ordered a regiment, A.I.T was the commissioner. Cavalrymen overtook a gang on Black Irtysh and crushed it.

After arrival of parts of Red Army, in which Akmolinsk cavalry squadron, Bayanaul group, an akmolinsk infantry company, Karkaraly group under I.A team. Semenenko, searches of victims, their identification began. Some people were so chopped that were learned hardly. Corpses were taken in city hospital where them prepared for funeral.

On April 23, 1921 the chief of all military groups, the representative of Omsk REC Pasekov issued the order No. 10. In it was told: «This number at 4 o'clock in the afternoon funeral of the bandits which have lost from hands of companions will take place. I order to the commander of the 3rd Akmolinsk company to prepare Red Army men for parade. The chief for carrying out parade I appoint the commander of the 3rd company Zavadovsky and I order it to construct the Akmola company and entrusted to it. To appoint the commander of parade Grokhotov».

Victims were buried on the area where three mass graves were dug. They were three parallel trenches on, 10 meters in length and 2,5 meters depth. Coffins are in three ranks put in them. Each grave is covered with earth with formation of a barrow. The remained data allow to define total number of the buried. In a ten-meter grave it is possible to lay in three ranks 42 coffins. Mass graves three, therefore, 126 people here could be buried. Therefore, we still should reveal an additional death toll on this basis; to eliminate errors in treatment of their surnames, names and patronymics, year of birth; to specify number of the persons which have fallen from hands of bandits in other places of the Karkaraly district.

In the same 1921 the first steps on arrangement of a sacred place were undertaken. On the area of heroes began to hold memorable memorial services. In November, 1967 solemn opening of a memorial to the fallen fighters for establishment of the Soviet power took place. On a mass grave names of 78 people were specified. We list names on an obelisk:

1. Aksarin Alexander Platonovich . 1873-1921. Member RCP(B) from 1920 . - employee of food department Karkaralinsky district revolution committee.

2. Ahmetov Hamit. 1895-1921. Member RCP(B), teacher of grade school of Karkaraly town.

3. Bazilevich Akulina. ?-1921. Non-party, the Wife of military commissar Bazilevich G. N. was lost together with the husband in the house No. 24 down the street M. Auyezov.

4. Bazilevich Gerasim Nikitovich. 1894-1921. Member RCP(B)  from  1918. On February 3, 1921 in connection with a disease tuberculosis it was released from duties district and it is appointed the head of department of the social military commissioner of providing. On April 6, 1921, being shot from bandits, was lost having blown up the grenade of and the wife.

5. Belorusov Efim Stepanovich. 1900-1921. . Member RCP(B)  . On military service in Karkaraly since March 20, 1920.

6. Berdalyn Rahimberly. 1894-1921. Policeman.

7. Bloshitsin Anton Grigorievich . 1862-1921. Nonpartisan. To Karkaraly arrived in 1890 from a village Lobanovsky Kokshetausky district. Worked as the forester. " Boyko V. ?-1921. Member RCP(B).

8. Bondarenko Ivan Martem’yanovich. 1870-1921. Nonpartisan. On 30. 07. 1920 the forester.

9. Borisenko Ivan Ivanovich. 1894-1921. Member RCP(B), from 1920  Red soldier of 2 coy of Karkaraly  battalion, then assistant to the commander of a platoon.

10. Bortnikov Evgeniy Andreevich. 1866-1921. Member RCP(B ) from  1920. As an accountant. On 23.08. 1920 - the head of department of work and a social assistance of district executive committee.

11. Bubnov Nickolay  Iosifovich. 1889-1921. Member RCP(B ). The order No. 17 from February 25, 1920 it is enlisted on service in the Karkaraly military registration and enlistment office by the head of the supply department.

12. Voytsehovsky Alexander Konstantinovich. 1888-1921. Member RCP(B ) from  1910. In 1920 together with V. V. May's other Petrograd Bolshevik it is sent in Karkaraly to a position by the manager of workshops.

13. Voloshin Yakov Andreevich. ?-1921. Member RCP(B ). Instructor of district party committee, worker.

14. Golenkin Alexander Petrovich. 1899-1921. Member RCP(B ). On February 27, 1921 was  appointed to the post Karkaraly district (party committee) of the military commissioner.

15. Druchkov Alexey Martinovich . 1894-1921. Member RCP(B ). Red soldier, assistant to the commander of a platoon.

16. Ermakov Andrey Nickolaevich . ?-1921. Member RCP(B ). On some oral message employee of the politburo employee of criminal investigation department.

17. Esbergenov Abdrahman. Policeman.

18. Zhudin Michael Ivanovich. ?-1921. Member RCP(B ). Arrived from Semipalainsk. On February 17, 1921 to a position of the manager of municipal red services.

19. Zhunusov Abdrahman. ?-1921. Member RCP(B ). By training the teacher. In 1921 it is included in structure of the commission on population census.

20. Ivanov Pavel. ?-1921. Member RCP(B ). In  1921 was the chief of district militia.

21. Ivanova Nina. 1904-1921. Member RCUY and RCP(B). Teacher in the Nickolaevka village.

22. Karelin Michael Sevostyanovich.  1893-1921. Member RCP(B ). From 22.03.1920 Red soldier Of Karkaraly battalion. Member of district party committee.

23. Katkov Philippe. ?-1921. Member RCP(B ) from March 1921. Employee of food department of regiment.

24. Kirik. ?-1921. Member RCP(B )  Employee of food department of regiment.

25. Koloskov Philippe Yakovlevich. 1898-1921. Member RCP(B) . In 1920 was sent Semipalatinsk provincial executive committee in Karkaraly to managers of a steam mill.

26. Komekbaev Magzum. ?-1921. Member RCP(B). By training the teacher.

27. Kononov Terenty Nickolaevich. ?-1921. Member RCP(B). Manager of district ground department.

28. Medeubaev  А. - 1886-1921. Member RCP(B) of district committee.

29. Musin Garif. - 1896-1921. Secretary of district committee of Komsomol.

30. Tkachenko Georgiy Andreevich. ?-1921. Member RCP(B). Member of district party committee.

31. Tuyrin Ivan Ksenofontovich. ?-1921. Member RCP(B). Member of district committee on fight against desertion.

32. Uzhegova Agrafena Ermolaevna.  ?-1921. Employee of district militia.

33. Phirulev. ?-1921. Member RCP(B). Instructor - propagandist of district party committee.

34. Hrustalev Michael Kapitonovich.  1877-1921. Member RCP(B). Manager of district department of national education.

35. Chervev Ivan Zinov’evich. 1882-1921. Nonpartisan. The active participant of establishment of the Soviet power in Karkaraly in February-March, 1918.

36. Cherepanov Ivan. ?-1921. Member RCP(B) since March 1, 1921. Instructor - translator of Semipalatinsk’s Tomsk Gubernian revolutionary committees.

37. Chernov Nickolay Ivanovich. 1892—1921. Member RCP(B). Employee of recruitment office.

38. Chernyaev Alexander. 1903-1921. Member RCUY. In 1920 actively participates in work of the Komsomol organization of Karkaraly.

39. Chigovich Alphred Hristofovich. 1897-1921. Member RCP(B). on a nationality Latvian. Since 20 of April,1920 first the assistant to representative Semipalatinsk District commission EC on the Karkaraly district.

40. Chigurov. ?-1921. Member RCP(B). Instructor propagandist of district party committee.

41. Shyngysov Ahmetkali. ?-1921. In 1921 telegraph operator of Karkaraly post and cable office.

42. Shvimmer Gustav. ?-1921. Member RCP(B) since March 1,1921. Employee of Karkaraly political office.

43. Yakubovsky Asan Bakirovich . 1885-1921. Member RCP(B). In Karkaraly served in a district military commissariat since March 16, 1920 worked as the encoder.

Belentsov’s, Vileev’s, Kaslenov’s, Makeev’s, Mahataev’s, Maletin’s, Matvienko’s, Myasnikov’s, Nikitin’s, Pashin’s, Pasketov’s, Partyun’s, Pochernyaev’s, Razumsky’s, Redkin’s, Ryazanov’s, Sankovich’s, Stankevich’s, Sytpaev’s, Sytpaev’s, Stolbov’s, Smirnov’s, Spirin’s, Solonar’s and etc. materials aren’t found.

These names, which are listed above, generally names of the young. 20 years weren't much then even. They participated in revolutionary events of 1917, passed through entrenchments of civil war, were at the beginnings of the largest social and economic transformations in the Central Kazakhstan.


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